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Exercise 42: Anatomy of the Reproductive System

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created 3 years ago by jncanf
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pg. 639 - pg. 643

updated 3 years ago by jncanf

Grade levels:
College: First year, College: Second year, College: Third year, College: Fourth year

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1

LIST THE TWO PRINCIPAL FUNCTIONS OF THE TESTIS.

1. PRODUCE SPERM
2. PRODUCE TESTOSTERONE

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3

A COMMON PART OF ANY PHYSICAL EXAMINATION OF THE MALE IS PALPATION OF THE PROSTATE. HOW IS THIS ACCOMPLISHED? (THINK!)

PHYSICIAN GENTLY INSERTS FINGER THROUGH THE ANTERIOR WALL OF THE RECTUM.

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HOW MIGHT ENLARGEMENT OF THE PROSTATE INTERFERE WITH URINATION OR THE REPRODUCTIVE ABILITY OF THE MALE?

AT IT ENLARGES, LAYERS OF TISSUE SURROUNDING IT STOPS IT FROM EXPANDING CAUSING THE GLAND TO PRESS AGAINST THE URETHRA. THIS CONSTRICTION OF THE URETHRA MAY LEAD TO NON PASSAGE OF URINE OR SPERM.

5

WHY ARE THE TESTES LOCATED IN THE SCROTUM RATHER THAN INSIDE THE VENTRAL BODY CAVITY.

THE SCROTUM PROVIDES A SLIGHTLY COOLER TEMPERATURE FOR OPTIMAL SPERM PRODUCTION.

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COPULATORY ORGAN/PENETRATING DEVICE

E. PENIS

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MUSCULAR PASSAGEWAY CONVEYING SPERM TO THE EJACULATORY DUCT; IN THE SPERMATIC CORD

B. DUCTUS (VAS) DEFERENS

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TRANSPORTS BOTH SPERM AND URINE

K. SPONGY URETHRA

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SPERM MATURATION SITE

C. EPIDIDYMIS

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LOCATION OF THE TESTIS IN ADULT MALES

I. SCROTUM

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LOOSE FOLD OF SKIN ENCIRCLING THE GLANS PENIS

F. PREPUCE

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PORTION OF THE URETHRA BETWEEN THE PROSTATE AND THE PENIS

D. MEMBRANOUS URETHRA

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EMPTIES A SECRETION INTO THE PROSTATIC URETHRA

G. PROSTATE

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EMPTIES A SECRETION INTO THE MEMBRANOUS URETHRA

A. BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS

15

DESCRIBE THE COMPOSITION OF SEMEN, AND NAME ALL STRUCTURES CONTRIBUTING TO ITS FORMATION.

SPERM AND THE ALKALINE SECRETIONS OF THE PROSTATE, SEMINAL VESICLES (ALSO CONTAINING FRUCTOSE) AND THE BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS.

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OF WHAT IMPORTANCE IS THE FACT THAT SEMINAL FLUID IS ALKALINE?

IT HELPS BUFFER THE SPERM AGAINST THE ACID ENVIRONMENT OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT.

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WHAT STRUCTURES COMPOSE THE SPERMATIC CORD?

CONNECTIVE TISSUE SHEATH (EXTENSION OF THE ABDOMINAL FASCIA), DUCTUS DEFERENS, BLOOD VESSELS, AND LYMPHATIC VESSELS.

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WHERE IS IT LOCATED? (SPERMATIC CORD)

PASSES FROM SCROTAL SAC THROUGH THE INGUINAL CANAL INTO THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY.

19

TRACE THE PATHWAY OF SPERM FROM THE TESTS TO THE URETHRA

SEMINIFEROUS TUBULE -> RETE TESTIS -> EPIDIDYMIS -> DUCTUS DEFERENS

20

NAME THE STRUCTURES COMPOSING THE EXTERNAL GENITALIA, OR VULVA, OF THE FEMALE.

MONS PUBIS, LABIA MAJORA, LABIA MINORA, CLITORIS, URETHRA AND VEGINAL ORIFICES, HYMEN AND GREATER VESTIBULAR GLANDS.

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22

SITE OF FETAL DEVELOPMENT

UTERUS

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COPULATORY CANAL

VAGINA

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EGG TYPICALLY FERTILIZED HERE

UTERINE (FALLOPIAN) TUBE

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BECOMES ERECT DURING SEXUAL EXCITEMENT

CLITORIS

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DUCT EXTENDING SUPEROLATERALLY FROM THE UTERUS

HYMEN

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PRODUCES OOCYTES, ESTROGENS, AND PROGESTERONE

OVARIES

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FINGERLIKE ENDS OF THE UTERINE TUBE

FIMBRIAE

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DO ANY SPERM ENTER THE PELVIC CAVITY OF THE FEMALE? WHY OR WHY NOT?

YES, BECAUSE THERE IS NO ANATOMIC CONTINUITY BETWEEN THE OVARY AND THE FIRST PART OF THE DUCT SYSTEM (UTERINE TUBE)

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WHAT IS AN ECTOPIC PREGNANCY, AND HOW CAN IT HAPPEN?

IT IS WHEN AN EMBRYO IMPLANTS IN A SITE OTHER THEN THE UTERUS. IT MAY OCCUR WHEN THE UTERINE (FALLOPIAN) TUBES ARE BLOCKED (PREVENTS PASSAGE) OR WHEN THE EGG IS LOST IN THE PERITONEAL CAVITY AND FERTILIZATION OCCURS THERE.

31

PUT THE FOLLOWING VESTIBULAR PERINEAL STRUCTURES IN THEIR PROPER ORDER FROM THE ANTERIOR TO THE POSTERIOR ASPECT: VAGINAL ORIFICE, ANUS, URETHRAL OPENING, AND CLITORIS.

ANTERIOR LIMIT: CLITORIS -> URETHRAL OPENING -> ANUS.

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ASSUME A COUPLE HAS JUST CONSUMMATED THE SEX ACT AND THE SPERM HAVE BEEN DEPOSITED IN THE VAGINA. TRACE THE PATHWAY OF THE SPERM THROUGH THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT.

VAGINA -> CERVIX -> UTERUS -> UTERINE TUBE -> PERITONEAL CAVITY.

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DEFINE OVULATION.

EJECTION OF AN IMMATURE EGG (OOCYTE) FROM THE OVARY.

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THE TESTIS IS DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF LOBES BY CONNECTIVE TISSUE. EACH OF THESE LOBES CONTAINS ONE TO FOUR _____1________, WHICH CONVERGE TO EMPTY SPERM INTO ANOTHER SET OF TUBULES CALLED THE _____2_________.

1. SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES
2. RETI TESTIS

35

WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE CAVERNOUS BODIES SEEN IN THE PENIS?

THE TISSUE CAN BECOME ENGORGED WITH BLOOD, THIS MAKING THE PENIS STIFF AND MORE EFFECTIVE AS A PENETRATING DEVICE.

36

NAME THE THREE LAYERS OF THE UTERINE WALL FROM THE INSIDE OUT.

ENDOMETRIUM, MYOMETRIUM, PERIMETRIUM (SEROSA)

37

WHICH OF THESE IS SLOUGHED DURING MENSES?

ENDOMETRIUM

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WHICH CONTRACTS DURING CHILDBIRTH?

MYOMETRIUM

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WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE STEREOCILIA EXHIBITED BY THE EPITHELIAL CELLS OF THE MUCOUS OF THE EPIDIDYMIS?

TO ABSORB EXCESS FLUID AND PROVIDE NUTRIENTS TO THE MATURING SPERM.

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41

GLANDS THAT PRODUCE MILK DURING LACTATION

A. ALVEOLI

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SUBDIVISION OF MAMMARY LOBES THAT CONTAIN ALVEOLI

E. LOBULE

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ENLARGED STORAGE CHAMBERS FOR MILK

D. LACTIFEROUS SINUS

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DUCTS CONNECTING ALVEOLI TO THE STORAGE CHAMBERS

C. LACTIFEROUS DUCT

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PIGMENTED AREA SURROUNDING THE NIPPLE

B. AREOLA

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RELEASES MILK TO THE OUTSIDE

F. NIPPLE

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