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Exercise 33A: Human Cardiovascular Physiology - Blood Pressure and Pulse Determinations


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1

CORRECTLY IDENTIFY EACH TRACE, VALVE CLOSINGS AND OPENINGS, AND EACH TIME PERIOD OF THE CARDIAC CYCLE.
(A - G)
A. VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE
B. AORTIC PRESSURE
C. VENTRICULAR DIASTOLE
D. AV AND SEMILUNAR VALVES CLOSED
E. VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE
F. AORTIC SEMILUNAR VALVE OPENS
G. VENTRICULAR PRESSURE
2

CORRECTLY IDENTIFY EACH TRACE, VALVE CLOSINGS AND OPENINGS, AND EACH TIME PERIOD OF THE CARDIAC CYCLE.
(H - P)
H. AORTIC SEMILUNAR VALVE CLOSES
I. ECG
J. AV VALVE CLOSES
K. AORTIC PRESSURE
L. AV VALVE OPENS
M. VENTRICULAR VOLUME
N. ATRIAL PRESSURE
O. FIRST HEART SOUND
P. SECOND HEART SOUND
3
DEFINE SYSTOLE
CONTRACTION OF THE HEART CHAMBERS DURING WHICH BLOOD LEAVES THE CHAMBERS; USUALLY REFERS TO VENTRICULAR CONTRACTION
4
DEFINE DIASTOLE
RELAXATION OF THE HEART CHAMBERS, DURING WHICH THEY FILL WITH BLOOD; USUALLY REFERS TO VENTRICULAR RELAXATION
5
DEFINE CARDIAC CYCLE
COMPLETE ROUND OF CARDIAC SYSTOLE AND DIASTOLE
6
WHEN ARE THE AV VALVES CLOSED?
DURING VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE
7
WHAT EVENT WITHIN THE HEART CAUSES AV VALVES TO OPEN?
VENTRICULAR PRESSURE
8
WHEN ARE THE SEMILUNAR VALVES CLOSED?
DIASTOLE OF HEART AS A WHOLE (QUIESCENCE) AND DURING ATRIA SYSTOLE
9
WHAT EVENT CAUSES THE SEMILUNAR VALVES TO OPEN?
VENTRICULAR PRESSURE> PRESSURE IN THE GREAT ARTERIES (AORTA AND PULMONARY TRUNK)LEAVING THEIR CHAMBERS.
10
ARE BOTH SETS OF VALVES CLOSED DURING ANY PART OF THE CYCLE. IF SO, WHEN?
YES THEY ARE; MOMENTARILY AFTER ATRIAL SYSTOLE AND VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE.
11
ARE BOTH SETS OF VALVES OPEN DURING ANY PART OF THE CYCLES?
NO THEY ARE NOT
12
AT WHAT POINT IN THE CARDIAC CYCLE IS THE PRESSURE IN THE HEART HIGHEST?
VENTRICULAR (SYSTOLE) CONTRACTION
13
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14
AT WHAT POINT IN THE CARDIAC CYCLE IS THE PRESSURE IN THE HEART LOWEST?
PRESSURE IN THE HEART IS LOWEST AT THE POINT OF VENTRICULAR RELAXATION (DIASTOLE)
15
WHAT EVENT RESULTS IN THE PRESSURE DEFLECTION CALLED THE DICROTIC NOTCH?
MOMENTARY INCREASE IN AORTIC PRESSURE THAT OCCURS WHEN ITS SEMILUNAR VALVE SNAPS SHUT.
16
THE LENGTH OF THE NORMAL CARDIAC CYCLE
0.8 SEC
17
THE TIME INTERVAL OF ATRIAL SYSTOLE
0.1 SEC
18
THE QUIESCENT PERIOD, OR PAUSE
0.4 SEC
19
THE VENTRICULAR CONTRACTION PERIOD
0.3 SEC
20
IF AN INDIVIDUAL'S HEART RATE IS 80 BEATS/MIN, WHAT IS THE LENGTH OF THE CARDIAC CYCLE? WHAT PORTION OF THE CARDIAC CYCLE IS SHORTENED BY THIS MORE RAPID HEART RATE?
0.75 SEC; QUIESCENT PERIOD (VENTRICULAR RELAXATION)
21
WHAT TWO FACTORS PROMOTE THE MOVEMENT OF BLOOD THROUGH THE HEART?
ALTERNATE CONTRACTION AND RELAXATION OF THE MYOCARDIUM - AND - OPENING AND CLOSING OF HEART VALVES (PRESSURE DEPENDENT)
22
THE MONOSYLLABLES DESCRIBING THE HEART SOUNDS ARE __1__. THE FIRST HEART SOUND IS A RESULT OF CLOSURE OF THE __2__ VALVES, WHEREAS THE SECOND IS A RESULT OF CLOSURE OF THE __3__ VALVES. THE HEART CHAMBERS THAT HAVE JUST BEEN FILLED WHEN YOU HEAR THE FIRST HEART SOUND ARE THE __4__, AND THE CHAMBERS THAT HAVE JUST EMPTIED ARE THE __5__. IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE SECOND HEART SOUND, BOTH THE __6__ AND __7__ ARE FILLING WITH BLOOD.
1. LUB/DUB
2. AV VALVES
3. SEMILUNAR LAVES
4. ATRIA
5. VENTRICLES
6. L. VENTRICLE
7. R. VENTRICLE
23
IN ORDER TO AUSCULTATE MOST ACCURATELY, INDICATE WHERE YOU WOULD PLACE YOUR STETHOSCOPE FOR THE FOLLOWING SOUNDS:

CLOSURE OF THE TRICUSPID VALVE
LEFT OR RIGHT STERNAL BORDER OF FIFTH INTERCOSTAL SPACE
24
IN ORDER TO AUSCULTATE MOST ACCURATELY, INDICATE WHERE YOU WOULD PLACE YOUR STETHOSCOPE FOR THE FOLLOWING SOUNDS:

CLOSURE OF THE AORTIC SEMILUNAR VALVE
RIGHT STERNAL BORDER OF SECOND INTERCOSTAL SPACE
25
IN ORDER TO AUSCULTATE MOST ACCURATELY, INDICATE WHERE YOU WOULD PLACE YOUR STETHOSCOPE FOR THE FOLLOWING SOUNDS:

APICAL HEARTBEAT
FIFTH INTERCOSTAL SPACE IN LINE WITH MIDDLE OF THE CLAVICLE
26
WHICH VALVE IS HEARD MOST CLEARLY WHEN THE APICAL HEARTBEAT IS AUSCULTATED?
BICUSPID
27
DEFINE PULSE
PULSE PRESSURE CAUSED BY THE EJECTION OF BLOOD FROM THE LEFT VENTRICLE INTO THE AORTA PRODUCES A PRESSURE WAVE (PULSE) THAT TRAVELS RAPIDLY ALONG THE ARTERIES.
28
DESCRIBE THE PROCEDURE USED TO TAKE THE PULSE.
THE PULSE IS THE AMOUNT OF BEATS PER MINUTE THAT YOUR HEART DOES. USE TWO FINGERS TO FIND THE PULSE (THERE ARE DIFFERENT AREAS ON THE BODY THAT THESE CAN BEST BE FOUND, BEST ARE THOSE CLOSEST TO THE SURFACE OF THE SKIN.) MOST COMMON ARE RADIAL AND CAROTID. COUNT THE BEATS FELT FOR A TIME AND MULITPLY TO GET 60 SECONDS. E.G. 15 SEC X 4.
29
PULSE AT THE WRIST
RADIAL ARTERY
30
PULSE IN FRONT OF THE EAR
SUPERFICIAL TEMPORAL ARTERY
31
PULSE ON THE DORSUM OF THE FOOT
DORSALIS PEDIS ARTERY AND POSTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERY.
32
PULSE AT THE SIDE OF THE NECK
CAROTID ARTERY
33
WHEN YOU WERE PALPATING THE VARIOUS PULSE OR PRESSURE POINTS, WHICH APPEARED TO HAVE THE GREATEST AMPLITUDE OR TENSION? WHY DO YOU THINK THIS WAS SO?
CAROTID ARTERY; BECAUSE IT IS THE CLOSEST TO THE HEART.
34
ASSUME SOMEONE HAS BEEN INJURED IN AN AUTO ACCIDENT AND IS HEMORRHAGING BADLY. WHAT PRESSURE POINT WOULD YOU COMPRESS TO HELP STOP BLEEDING FROM EACH OF THE FOLLOWING AREAS?

THE THIGH:
FEMORAL
35
ASSUME SOMEONE HAS BEEN INJURED IN AN AUTO ACCIDENT AND IS HEMORRHAGING BADLY. WHAT PRESSURE POINT WOULD YOU COMPRESS TO HELP STOP BLEEDING FROM EACH OF THE FOLLOWING AREAS?

THE FOREARM:
BRACHIAL
36
ASSUME SOMEONE HAS BEEN INJURED IN AN AUTO ACCIDENT AND IS HEMORRHAGING BADLY. WHAT PRESSURE POINT WOULD YOU COMPRESS TO HELP STOP BLEEDING FROM EACH OF THE FOLLOWING AREAS?

THE CALF:
POPLITEAL
37
ASSUME SOMEONE HAS BEEN INJURED IN AN AUTO ACCIDENT AND IS HEMORRHAGING BADLY. WHAT PRESSURE POINT WOULD YOU COMPRESS TO HELP STOP BLEEDING FROM EACH OF THE FOLLOWING AREAS?

THE THUMB:
RADIAL
38
HOW CAN YOU TELL BY SIMPLE OBSERVATION WHETHER BLEEDING IS ARTERIAL OR VENOUS?
BRIGHT RED AND SPURTING - ARTERIAL

DARK RED AND OOZING - VENOUS
39
YOU MAY SOMETIMES OBSERVE A SLIGHT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE VALUE OBTAINED FROM AN APICAL PULSE (BEATS/MIN) AND THAT FROM AN ARTERIAL PULSE TAKEN ELSEWHERE ON THE BODY. WHAT IS THIS DIFFERENCE CALLED?
PULSE DEFICIT
40
DEFINE BLOOD PRESSURE
(BP) TENSION OF THE BLOOD WITHIN THE BLOOD VESSELS; COMMONLY EXPRESSED IN UNITS OF MILLIMETERS OF MERCURY (MM Hg)
41
IDENTIFY THE PHASE OF THE CARDIAC CYCLE:
SYSTOLIC PRESSURE
VENTRICULAR EJECTION
42
IDENTIFY THE PHASE OF THE CARDIAC CYCLE:
DIASTOLIC PRESSURE
VENTRICULAR RELAXATION
43
WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE INSTRUMENT USED TO COMPRESS THE ARTERY AND RECORD PRESSURES IN THE AUSCULTATORY METHOD OF DETERMINING BLOOD PRESSURE?
SPHYGMOMANOMETER
44
WHAT ARE THE SOUNDS OF KOROTKOFF?
SOUNDS OF KOROTKOFF ARE PRODUCED WHEN BLOOD PRESSURE IS TAKEN. BLOOD FLOW PRODUCES VIBRATIONS IN THE BLOOD AND SURROUNDING TISSUES THAT CAN BE HEARD THROUGH THE STETHOSCOPE, THESE SOUNDS ARE CALLED KOROTKOFF.
45
WHAT CAUSES THE SYSTOLIC SOUND?
SYSTOLIC SOUND IS THE FIRST SOUND HEARD UNDER PRESSURE. AS THE PRESSURE IS RELEASED AND THE ARTERY CAN NO LONGER STAY CLOSED, AS BLOOD BEGINS TO FLOW THROUGH THE VIBRATIONS MAKE THIS FIRST SOUND.
46
WHAT CAUSES THE DISAPPEARANCE OF THE SOUND?
DISAPPEARANCE IS CONSIDERED DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE.
47
INTERPRET 145/85/82
BP 145/85, PULSE 82 BPM. 145 PRESSURE IT TAKES YOUR BLOOD TO PUSH THROUGH VASCULAR SYSTEM WHILE YOU HAVE IT RESTRICTED. 85 IS LEAST AMOUNT OF PRESSURE NEEDED TO FLOW THROUGH VEINS WITHOUT PRESSURE. 82 IS AMOUNT OF HEART BEATS PER MINUTE. COMPLETED CARDIAC CYCLES (82) IN ONE MINUTE.
48
DEFINE PULSE PRESSURE
SYSTOLIC PRESSURE - DIASTOLIC PRESSURE
49
WHY IS THIS MEASUREMENT IMPORTANT? (PULSE PRESSURE)
INDICATED ACTUAL WORKING PRESSURE (AMOUNT OF BLOOD FORCED OUT OF THE HEART DURING SYSTOLE)
50
HOW DO VENOUS PRESSURES COMPARE TO ARTERIAL PRESSURE? WHY?
VENOUS PRESSURE IS LOWER; BECAUSE THE VEINS ARE FURTHER REMOVED FROM THE PUMPING ACTION OF THE HEART
51
WHAT MANEUVER TO INCREASE THE THORACIC PRESSURE ILLUSTRATES THE EFFECT OF EXTERNAL FACTORS ON VENOUS PRESSURE? HOW IS THIS PREFORMED?
A PERSON TAKES A DEEP BREATH & MIMICS THE NOTIONS OF EXHALING FORCIBLY BUT W/O ACTUALLY EXHALING; THE GLOTTIS WILL CLOSE AND THE INTRATHORACIC PRESSURE WILL INCREASE
52
WHAT MIGHT AN ABNORMAL INCREASE IN VENOUS PRESSURE INDICATE? (THINK!)
These factors can increase central venous pressure:
-Decreased cardiac output
-Increased blood volume
-Venous constriction
-Changing from standing to supine body posture
-Forced expiration
-Muscle contraction
53
WHAT EFFECT DO THE FOLLOWING HAVE ON BLOOD PRESSURE?
INCREASED DIAMETER OF THE ARTERIOLES
DECREASES
54
WHAT EFFECT DO THE FOLLOWING HAVE ON BLOOD PRESSURE?
INCREASED BLOOD VISCOSITY
INCREASES
55
WHAT EFFECT DO THE FOLLOWING HAVE ON BLOOD PRESSURE?
INCREASED CARDIAC OUTPUT
INCREASES
56
WHAT EFFECT DO THE FOLLOWING HAVE ON BLOOD PRESSURE?
HEMORRHAGE
DECREASES
57
WHAT EFFECT DO THE FOLLOWING HAVE ON BLOOD PRESSURE?
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS
INCREASES
58
WHAT EFFECT DO THE FOLLOWING HAVE ON BLOOD PRESSURE?
INCREASED PULSE RATE
INCREASES
59
IN WHICH POSITION (SITTING, RECLINING, OR STANDING) IS THE BLOOD PRESSURE NORMALLY THE HIGHEST? THE LOWEST?
HIGHEST - RECLINING
LOWEST - STANDING
60
WHAT IMMEDIATE CHANGES IN BLOOD PRESSURE DID YOU OBSERVE WHEN THE SUBJECT STOOD UP AFTER BEING IN THE SITTING OR RECLINING POSITION?
Your blood pressure is higher when your heart is hard at work, pumping blood while your body is moving, keeping balance, etc. (when you're awake and standing.) And when you are reclining, your heart is at rest and doesn't need to work as hard to pump blood through out the bodY
61
WHAT CHANGES IN THE BLOOD VESSELS MIGHT ACCOUNT FOR THE CHANGE?
Blood vessels can feel the shear stress caused by blood flow. When shear stress increases the blood vessel responds and the diameter becomes larger. Thus in short, changes in blood flow might cause blood vessels to change diameter
62
AFTER THE SUBJECT STOOD FOR 3 MINUTES, WHAT CHANGES IN BLOOD PRESSURE WERE OBSERVED? HOW DO YOU ACCOUNT FOR THIS CHANGE?
The blood pressure evened out back to normal, took 3 minutes for blood to be distributed normally to and from the heart to body.
63
WHAT WAS THE EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON BLOOD PRESSURE?
During exercise systolic blood pressure (the upper reading) usually increases gradually. However, regular exercise normally causes routine resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure to decrease
64
WHAT WAS THE EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON PULSE RATE?
When you are working out, your body is using alot of energy, therefore your heart has to pump faster in order to keep up with the rate of breathing. Sometimes if not enough oxygen is being delivered to each cell, lactic fermentation occurs where lactic acid is produced
65
DO YOU THINK THESE EFFECTS REFLECT CHANGES IN CARDIAC OUTPUT OR IN PERIPHERAL RESISTANCE?
CARDIAC OUTPUT
66
WHY ARE THERE NORMALLY NO SIGNIFICANT INCREASES IN DIASTOLIC PRESSURE AFTER EXERCISE?
Diastolic pressure is the pressure in the circulatory system in between heartbeats. The blood isn't at any pressure inbetween beats, whether you've just exercised or are sleeping
67
WHAT EFFECTS OF THE FOLLOWING DID YOU OBSERVE ON BLOOD PRESSURE IN THE LABORATORY?

COLD TEMPERATURE:
INCREASES BLOOD PRESSURE
68
WHAT DO YOU THINK THE EFFECT OF HEAT WOULD BE? WHY?
HEAT WOULD DECREASE BLOOD PRESSURE, BECAUSE IT CAUSES YOUR BLOOD VESSELS TO DILATE (OPEN UP)

Comments (17)

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MissKatAttack 2 years ago

yeah some of the answers were wrong, sorry. thanks for the effort!

chimidashark 2 years ago

Thanks but wrong answers. Threw me off big time.

GaryP55 2 years ago

I am 57 years old and have never had anything to be so helpful,Thank all who creates these cards so much.

lslovick 2 years ago

Thank you very much for the hardworking!

Bigg_D 2 years ago

great notecards #swerve

tfaulkner6 3 years ago

Thanks these notecards are very helpful.

jncanf 3 years ago

I got a 100 on that part so not sure, just posted what I got on mine and how I was graded on it

asalo 3 years ago

On card 2, H is correct, I is aortic pressure, J is correct, K is atrial pressure L and M are correct, N is ECG, O and P are correct.

asalo 3 years ago

Um... I'm sorry, but I'm pretty sure some of these are incorrect. On the first card, A is ventricular diastole, B is AV and semilunar valves closed, C is ventricular systole, D is correct, E is ventricular diastole, F and G are correct. I could be wrong, but you might want to double check. Note that there are more than one answer for two of these: 10. is B and D and 13. is A and E.

cynbad23 3 years ago

cool cards! thanks, its great review.

Helpfulness:51

 

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Exercise 33A
pg. 505 - 510
Im making these notecards to help, so if you use them, please sign up and help add more notecards! And dont forget to rat...

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Human Anatomy & Physiology

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3 years agoby jncanf

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3 years agoby jncanf

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Subjects

science, life sciences, human anatomy & physiology

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