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Exercise 33A: Human Cardiovascular Physiology - Blood Pressure and Pulse Determinations

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Exercise 33A pg. 505 - 510 Im making these notecards to help, so if you use them, please sign up and help add more notecards! And dont forget to rate my helpfulness!!

updated 4 years ago by jncanf

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1
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CORRECTLY IDENTIFY EACH TRACE, VALVE CLOSINGS AND OPENINGS, AND EACH TIME PERIOD OF THE CARDIAC CYCLE.
(A - G)

A. VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE
B. AORTIC PRESSURE
C. VENTRICULAR DIASTOLE
D. AV AND SEMILUNAR VALVES CLOSED
E. VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE
F. AORTIC SEMILUNAR VALVE OPENS
G. VENTRICULAR PRESSURE

2
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CORRECTLY IDENTIFY EACH TRACE, VALVE CLOSINGS AND OPENINGS, AND EACH TIME PERIOD OF THE CARDIAC CYCLE.
(H - P)

H. AORTIC SEMILUNAR VALVE CLOSES
I. ECG
J. AV VALVE CLOSES
K. AORTIC PRESSURE
L. AV VALVE OPENS
M. VENTRICULAR VOLUME
N. ATRIAL PRESSURE
O. FIRST HEART SOUND
P. SECOND HEART SOUND

3

DEFINE SYSTOLE

CONTRACTION OF THE HEART CHAMBERS DURING WHICH BLOOD LEAVES THE CHAMBERS; USUALLY REFERS TO VENTRICULAR CONTRACTION

4

DEFINE DIASTOLE

RELAXATION OF THE HEART CHAMBERS, DURING WHICH THEY FILL WITH BLOOD; USUALLY REFERS TO VENTRICULAR RELAXATION

5

DEFINE CARDIAC CYCLE

COMPLETE ROUND OF CARDIAC SYSTOLE AND DIASTOLE

6

WHEN ARE THE AV VALVES CLOSED?

DURING VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE

7

WHAT EVENT WITHIN THE HEART CAUSES AV VALVES TO OPEN?

VENTRICULAR PRESSURE

8

WHEN ARE THE SEMILUNAR VALVES CLOSED?

DIASTOLE OF HEART AS A WHOLE (QUIESCENCE) AND DURING ATRIA SYSTOLE

9

WHAT EVENT CAUSES THE SEMILUNAR VALVES TO OPEN?

VENTRICULAR PRESSURE> PRESSURE IN THE GREAT ARTERIES (AORTA AND PULMONARY TRUNK)LEAVING THEIR CHAMBERS.

10

ARE BOTH SETS OF VALVES CLOSED DURING ANY PART OF THE CYCLE. IF SO, WHEN?

YES THEY ARE; MOMENTARILY AFTER ATRIAL SYSTOLE AND VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE.

11

ARE BOTH SETS OF VALVES OPEN DURING ANY PART OF THE CYCLES?

NO THEY ARE NOT

12

AT WHAT POINT IN THE CARDIAC CYCLE IS THE PRESSURE IN THE HEART HIGHEST?

VENTRICULAR (SYSTOLE) CONTRACTION

13

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14

AT WHAT POINT IN THE CARDIAC CYCLE IS THE PRESSURE IN THE HEART LOWEST?

PRESSURE IN THE HEART IS LOWEST AT THE POINT OF VENTRICULAR RELAXATION (DIASTOLE)

15

WHAT EVENT RESULTS IN THE PRESSURE DEFLECTION CALLED THE DICROTIC NOTCH?

MOMENTARY INCREASE IN AORTIC PRESSURE THAT OCCURS WHEN ITS SEMILUNAR VALVE SNAPS SHUT.

16

THE LENGTH OF THE NORMAL CARDIAC CYCLE

0.8 SEC

17

THE TIME INTERVAL OF ATRIAL SYSTOLE

0.1 SEC

18

THE QUIESCENT PERIOD, OR PAUSE

0.4 SEC

19

THE VENTRICULAR CONTRACTION PERIOD

0.3 SEC

20

IF AN INDIVIDUAL'S HEART RATE IS 80 BEATS/MIN, WHAT IS THE LENGTH OF THE CARDIAC CYCLE? WHAT PORTION OF THE CARDIAC CYCLE IS SHORTENED BY THIS MORE RAPID HEART RATE?

0.75 SEC; QUIESCENT PERIOD (VENTRICULAR RELAXATION)

21

WHAT TWO FACTORS PROMOTE THE MOVEMENT OF BLOOD THROUGH THE HEART?

ALTERNATE CONTRACTION AND RELAXATION OF THE MYOCARDIUM - AND - OPENING AND CLOSING OF HEART VALVES (PRESSURE DEPENDENT)

22

THE MONOSYLLABLES DESCRIBING THE HEART SOUNDS ARE __1__. THE FIRST HEART SOUND IS A RESULT OF CLOSURE OF THE __2__ VALVES, WHEREAS THE SECOND IS A RESULT OF CLOSURE OF THE __3__ VALVES. THE HEART CHAMBERS THAT HAVE JUST BEEN FILLED WHEN YOU HEAR THE FIRST HEART SOUND ARE THE __4__, AND THE CHAMBERS THAT HAVE JUST EMPTIED ARE THE __5__. IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE SECOND HEART SOUND, BOTH THE __6__ AND __7__ ARE FILLING WITH BLOOD.

1. LUB/DUB
2. AV VALVES
3. SEMILUNAR LAVES
4. ATRIA
5. VENTRICLES
6. L. VENTRICLE
7. R. VENTRICLE

23

IN ORDER TO AUSCULTATE MOST ACCURATELY, INDICATE WHERE YOU WOULD PLACE YOUR STETHOSCOPE FOR THE FOLLOWING SOUNDS:

CLOSURE OF THE TRICUSPID VALVE

LEFT OR RIGHT STERNAL BORDER OF FIFTH INTERCOSTAL SPACE

24

IN ORDER TO AUSCULTATE MOST ACCURATELY, INDICATE WHERE YOU WOULD PLACE YOUR STETHOSCOPE FOR THE FOLLOWING SOUNDS:

CLOSURE OF THE AORTIC SEMILUNAR VALVE

RIGHT STERNAL BORDER OF SECOND INTERCOSTAL SPACE

25

IN ORDER TO AUSCULTATE MOST ACCURATELY, INDICATE WHERE YOU WOULD PLACE YOUR STETHOSCOPE FOR THE FOLLOWING SOUNDS:

APICAL HEARTBEAT

FIFTH INTERCOSTAL SPACE IN LINE WITH MIDDLE OF THE CLAVICLE

26

WHICH VALVE IS HEARD MOST CLEARLY WHEN THE APICAL HEARTBEAT IS AUSCULTATED?

BICUSPID

27

DEFINE PULSE

PULSE PRESSURE CAUSED BY THE EJECTION OF BLOOD FROM THE LEFT VENTRICLE INTO THE AORTA PRODUCES A PRESSURE WAVE (PULSE) THAT TRAVELS RAPIDLY ALONG THE ARTERIES.

28

DESCRIBE THE PROCEDURE USED TO TAKE THE PULSE.

THE PULSE IS THE AMOUNT OF BEATS PER MINUTE THAT YOUR HEART DOES. USE TWO FINGERS TO FIND THE PULSE (THERE ARE DIFFERENT AREAS ON THE BODY THAT THESE CAN BEST BE FOUND, BEST ARE THOSE CLOSEST TO THE SURFACE OF THE SKIN.) MOST COMMON ARE RADIAL AND CAROTID. COUNT THE BEATS FELT FOR A TIME AND MULITPLY TO GET 60 SECONDS. E.G. 15 SEC X 4.

29

PULSE AT THE WRIST

RADIAL ARTERY

30

PULSE IN FRONT OF THE EAR

SUPERFICIAL TEMPORAL ARTERY

31

PULSE ON THE DORSUM OF THE FOOT

DORSALIS PEDIS ARTERY AND POSTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERY.

32

PULSE AT THE SIDE OF THE NECK

CAROTID ARTERY

33

WHEN YOU WERE PALPATING THE VARIOUS PULSE OR PRESSURE POINTS, WHICH APPEARED TO HAVE THE GREATEST AMPLITUDE OR TENSION? WHY DO YOU THINK THIS WAS SO?

CAROTID ARTERY; BECAUSE IT IS THE CLOSEST TO THE HEART.

34

ASSUME SOMEONE HAS BEEN INJURED IN AN AUTO ACCIDENT AND IS HEMORRHAGING BADLY. WHAT PRESSURE POINT WOULD YOU COMPRESS TO HELP STOP BLEEDING FROM EACH OF THE FOLLOWING AREAS?

THE THIGH:

FEMORAL

35

ASSUME SOMEONE HAS BEEN INJURED IN AN AUTO ACCIDENT AND IS HEMORRHAGING BADLY. WHAT PRESSURE POINT WOULD YOU COMPRESS TO HELP STOP BLEEDING FROM EACH OF THE FOLLOWING AREAS?

THE FOREARM:

BRACHIAL

36

ASSUME SOMEONE HAS BEEN INJURED IN AN AUTO ACCIDENT AND IS HEMORRHAGING BADLY. WHAT PRESSURE POINT WOULD YOU COMPRESS TO HELP STOP BLEEDING FROM EACH OF THE FOLLOWING AREAS?

THE CALF:

POPLITEAL

37

ASSUME SOMEONE HAS BEEN INJURED IN AN AUTO ACCIDENT AND IS HEMORRHAGING BADLY. WHAT PRESSURE POINT WOULD YOU COMPRESS TO HELP STOP BLEEDING FROM EACH OF THE FOLLOWING AREAS?

THE THUMB:

RADIAL

38

HOW CAN YOU TELL BY SIMPLE OBSERVATION WHETHER BLEEDING IS ARTERIAL OR VENOUS?

BRIGHT RED AND SPURTING - ARTERIAL

DARK RED AND OOZING - VENOUS

39

YOU MAY SOMETIMES OBSERVE A SLIGHT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE VALUE OBTAINED FROM AN APICAL PULSE (BEATS/MIN) AND THAT FROM AN ARTERIAL PULSE TAKEN ELSEWHERE ON THE BODY. WHAT IS THIS DIFFERENCE CALLED?

PULSE DEFICIT

40

DEFINE BLOOD PRESSURE

(BP) TENSION OF THE BLOOD WITHIN THE BLOOD VESSELS; COMMONLY EXPRESSED IN UNITS OF MILLIMETERS OF MERCURY (MM Hg)

41

IDENTIFY THE PHASE OF THE CARDIAC CYCLE:
SYSTOLIC PRESSURE

VENTRICULAR EJECTION

42

IDENTIFY THE PHASE OF THE CARDIAC CYCLE:
DIASTOLIC PRESSURE

VENTRICULAR RELAXATION

43

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE INSTRUMENT USED TO COMPRESS THE ARTERY AND RECORD PRESSURES IN THE AUSCULTATORY METHOD OF DETERMINING BLOOD PRESSURE?

SPHYGMOMANOMETER

44

WHAT ARE THE SOUNDS OF KOROTKOFF?

SOUNDS OF KOROTKOFF ARE PRODUCED WHEN BLOOD PRESSURE IS TAKEN. BLOOD FLOW PRODUCES VIBRATIONS IN THE BLOOD AND SURROUNDING TISSUES THAT CAN BE HEARD THROUGH THE STETHOSCOPE, THESE SOUNDS ARE CALLED KOROTKOFF.

45

WHAT CAUSES THE SYSTOLIC SOUND?

SYSTOLIC SOUND IS THE FIRST SOUND HEARD UNDER PRESSURE. AS THE PRESSURE IS RELEASED AND THE ARTERY CAN NO LONGER STAY CLOSED, AS BLOOD BEGINS TO FLOW THROUGH THE VIBRATIONS MAKE THIS FIRST SOUND.

46

WHAT CAUSES THE DISAPPEARANCE OF THE SOUND?

DISAPPEARANCE IS CONSIDERED DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE.

47

INTERPRET 145/85/82

BP 145/85, PULSE 82 BPM. 145 PRESSURE IT TAKES YOUR BLOOD TO PUSH THROUGH VASCULAR SYSTEM WHILE YOU HAVE IT RESTRICTED. 85 IS LEAST AMOUNT OF PRESSURE NEEDED TO FLOW THROUGH VEINS WITHOUT PRESSURE. 82 IS AMOUNT OF HEART BEATS PER MINUTE. COMPLETED CARDIAC CYCLES (82) IN ONE MINUTE.

48

DEFINE PULSE PRESSURE

SYSTOLIC PRESSURE - DIASTOLIC PRESSURE

49

WHY IS THIS MEASUREMENT IMPORTANT? (PULSE PRESSURE)

INDICATED ACTUAL WORKING PRESSURE (AMOUNT OF BLOOD FORCED OUT OF THE HEART DURING SYSTOLE)

50

HOW DO VENOUS PRESSURES COMPARE TO ARTERIAL PRESSURE? WHY?

VENOUS PRESSURE IS LOWER; BECAUSE THE VEINS ARE FURTHER REMOVED FROM THE PUMPING ACTION OF THE HEART

51

WHAT MANEUVER TO INCREASE THE THORACIC PRESSURE ILLUSTRATES THE EFFECT OF EXTERNAL FACTORS ON VENOUS PRESSURE? HOW IS THIS PREFORMED?

A PERSON TAKES A DEEP BREATH & MIMICS THE NOTIONS OF EXHALING FORCIBLY BUT W/O ACTUALLY EXHALING; THE GLOTTIS WILL CLOSE AND THE INTRATHORACIC PRESSURE WILL INCREASE

52

WHAT MIGHT AN ABNORMAL INCREASE IN VENOUS PRESSURE INDICATE? (THINK!)

These factors can increase central venous pressure:
-Decreased cardiac output
-Increased blood volume
-Venous constriction
-Changing from standing to supine body posture
-Forced expiration
-Muscle contraction

53

WHAT EFFECT DO THE FOLLOWING HAVE ON BLOOD PRESSURE?
INCREASED DIAMETER OF THE ARTERIOLES

DECREASES

54

WHAT EFFECT DO THE FOLLOWING HAVE ON BLOOD PRESSURE?
INCREASED BLOOD VISCOSITY

INCREASES

55

WHAT EFFECT DO THE FOLLOWING HAVE ON BLOOD PRESSURE?
INCREASED CARDIAC OUTPUT

INCREASES

56

WHAT EFFECT DO THE FOLLOWING HAVE ON BLOOD PRESSURE?
HEMORRHAGE

DECREASES

57

WHAT EFFECT DO THE FOLLOWING HAVE ON BLOOD PRESSURE?
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS

INCREASES

58

WHAT EFFECT DO THE FOLLOWING HAVE ON BLOOD PRESSURE?
INCREASED PULSE RATE

INCREASES

59

IN WHICH POSITION (SITTING, RECLINING, OR STANDING) IS THE BLOOD PRESSURE NORMALLY THE HIGHEST? THE LOWEST?

HIGHEST - RECLINING
LOWEST - STANDING

60

WHAT IMMEDIATE CHANGES IN BLOOD PRESSURE DID YOU OBSERVE WHEN THE SUBJECT STOOD UP AFTER BEING IN THE SITTING OR RECLINING POSITION?

Your blood pressure is higher when your heart is hard at work, pumping blood while your body is moving, keeping balance, etc. (when you're awake and standing.) And when you are reclining, your heart is at rest and doesn't need to work as hard to pump blood through out the bodY

61

WHAT CHANGES IN THE BLOOD VESSELS MIGHT ACCOUNT FOR THE CHANGE?

Blood vessels can feel the shear stress caused by blood flow. When shear stress increases the blood vessel responds and the diameter becomes larger. Thus in short, changes in blood flow might cause blood vessels to change diameter

62

AFTER THE SUBJECT STOOD FOR 3 MINUTES, WHAT CHANGES IN BLOOD PRESSURE WERE OBSERVED? HOW DO YOU ACCOUNT FOR THIS CHANGE?

The blood pressure evened out back to normal, took 3 minutes for blood to be distributed normally to and from the heart to body.

63

WHAT WAS THE EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON BLOOD PRESSURE?

During exercise systolic blood pressure (the upper reading) usually increases gradually. However, regular exercise normally causes routine resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure to decrease

64

WHAT WAS THE EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON PULSE RATE?

When you are working out, your body is using alot of energy, therefore your heart has to pump faster in order to keep up with the rate of breathing. Sometimes if not enough oxygen is being delivered to each cell, lactic fermentation occurs where lactic acid is produced

65

DO YOU THINK THESE EFFECTS REFLECT CHANGES IN CARDIAC OUTPUT OR IN PERIPHERAL RESISTANCE?

CARDIAC OUTPUT

66

WHY ARE THERE NORMALLY NO SIGNIFICANT INCREASES IN DIASTOLIC PRESSURE AFTER EXERCISE?

Diastolic pressure is the pressure in the circulatory system in between heartbeats. The blood isn't at any pressure inbetween beats, whether you've just exercised or are sleeping

67

WHAT EFFECTS OF THE FOLLOWING DID YOU OBSERVE ON BLOOD PRESSURE IN THE LABORATORY?

COLD TEMPERATURE:

INCREASES BLOOD PRESSURE

68

WHAT DO YOU THINK THE EFFECT OF HEAT WOULD BE? WHY?

HEAT WOULD DECREASE BLOOD PRESSURE, BECAUSE IT CAUSES YOUR BLOOD VESSELS TO DILATE (OPEN UP)