Chapter 12

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1

What evidence suggests evolution from prokaryotic organisms?

symbiosis

2

Where did organelles originate from?

prokaryotic cells trapped inside of them.

3

What are the difference between pro and eukaryotic cells?

eukaryotic cells are larger and have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles.

4

What is also evidence of evolution from prokaryotes?

mitochondria and chloroplast are evidence. They have their own DNA.

5

Where is chloroplast found?

found in photosynthetic organisms

6

what are the 4 structures not found in all cell types?

cell wall, flagellum, centrioles, chloroplast.

7

what is the only type flagellated cell found in the human body?

sperm

8

does Fungi have a cell wall?

yes

9

do animals have a cell wall?

no

10

which eukaryotic organism is always unicellular?

protozoa

11

What eukaryotic organisms may be unicellular or multicellular?

Fungi and Algae

12

Are molds, multi or unicellular?

multicellular

13

are yeast cells multicellular or unicellular?

both

14

are algae cells multicellular or unicellular?

both

15

what eukaryotic organism is always multicellular with the exception of its reproductive stages?

helminths/worms. They are unicellular with egg or larval forms.

16

Eukaryotic cells look different? t/f

true

17

What makes up cytoskeleton? 2 things

microfilaments and microtubules

18

What are the functions of the cytoskeleton?

movement of cytoplasm, amoeboid movement, transport and structural support.

19

what are the names of the 2 locomotor appendages?

Flagella and Cilia.

20

What type of arrangement does Flagella have?

9+2 arrangement. 9 pairs of microtubules in a circle and 2 microtubules in the center.

21

what type of motion do flagella in a eukaryotic cell have?

snake like motion. NOT 360 degrees.

22

what is flagella covered by?

an extension of the cell membrane.

23

how much thicker is eukaryotic flagella versus prokaryotic flagella?

10X thicker

24

what is the function of flagella?

motility

25

what is cilia?

similar to flagella, but shorter and more numerous. Hair like.

26

where is cilia found?

only in single group of protozoa and in certain animal cells. found in trachea and intestines.

27

What are the functions of cilia?

motility, feeding and filtering.

28

Do human cells have a cell wall?

no

29

What is the outermost boundary that covers the outside of the cell?

glycocalyx

30

what is glycocalyx usually composed of?

polysaccharides.

31

what appears as a netowrk of fibers, a slime layer or a capsule?

glycocalyx

32

what can be found beneath the glycocalyx?

cell wall or cell membrane Some organisms lack a cell wall.

33

what organisms only have a cell membrane?

protozoans, few algae and all animal cells.

34

what organisms have a thick, rigid cell wall?

fungi and most algae

35

what are the functions of the glycocalyx?

protection, adherence and signal reception (chemical message sticks to it).