Blood vessels

Helpfulness: +1
Set Details Share
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

What are 2 main circulations?

Pulmonary circulation
Systemic circulation

2

the circulation that runs from the heart to the lungs, back to the heart?

pulmonary circulation

3

what is the long loop to all parts of the body and back to the heart?

systemic circulation

4

Do arteries carry blood towards or away from the heart?

away

5

veins carry blood, toward or away from the heart?

toward

6

What do capillaries do?

contact tissue cells and directly serve cellular needs

7

what type of blood do veins carry in the pulmonary circulation?

oxygenated

8

what type of blood do veins carry in the systemic circulation?

deoxygenated

9

what type of blood do arteries carry in the systemic circulation?

oxygenated

10

what type of blood do arteries carry in the pulmonary circulation?

deoxygenated

11

what are the three layers of veins and arteries?

tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica externa

12

what is a lumen?

central blood containing space

13

what are capillaries?

endothelium with sparse basal lamina

14

what is the most internal layer of an artery or vein called?

tunica intima

15

what type of tissue lines the lumen of all vessels in the tunica intima?

endothelium

16

what type of texture lines the tunica media?

smooth muscle and sheets of elastin

17

what controls vasoconstriction and vasodilation of vessels in the tunica media?

sympathetic nerve fibers

18

what type of fibers line the tunica externa?

collagen fibers

19

what is another name for the tunica externa?

tunica adventitia

20

what are the 3 types of arteries?

elastic arteries
muscular arteries
arterioles

21

what type of artery has large thich walls with elastin in all three tunics?

elastic arteries

22

what are the smallest arteries?

arterioles

23

what leads to cappilary beds?

arterioles

24

what is the name of microscopic blood vessels?

capillaries

25

capillaries allow how many RBC to pass through at a time?

a single RBC

26

capillaries are found in all tissues except for what?

cartilage
epithelia
cornea and lens of eye

27

what are the functions of capillaries?

exchange of gases, nutrients, wastes, hormones and etc

28

what are the 3 structural types of capillaries?

continous capillaries
fenestrated capillaries
sinusoidal capillaries

29

which type of capillarie is abundant in skin and muscles?

continuous capillaries

30

which type of capillary is the most permeable?

sinusoidal capillary

31

where are sinusoidal capillaries found in?

liver, bone marrow and spleen

32

what type of capillary is found in the endocrine glands, kidneys and small intestines?

fenestrated capillaries

33

what has thinner walls, but larger lumens?

veins

34

is blood pressure lower in arteries or veins?

arteries

35

what are known as the blood reservoirs?

veins

36

how much blood do the veins contain?

65%

37

what causes resistance of blood flow?

blood viscosity
total blood vessel length
blood vessel diameter

38

what are the 2 constant factors of resistance?

viscosity
blood vessel length

39

which type of blood pressure is more accurate?

systemic

40

what is the unit of measurement for blood pressure?

mm Hg

41

what is blood pressure?

force per unit area exerted on the wall of a blood vessel by the blood.
(how much pressure blood puts on vessel)

42

why is resistance more important in influencing local blood flow?

because it is easily changed by altering blood vessle diameter

43

what is systemic blood pressure?

the pumping action of the heart generates blood flow

44

systemic pressure is highest where?

aorta

45

what is the mmHg in the right atrium?

0mm Hg

46

where does the steepest drop occur in systemic blood pressure?

in arterioles

47

systemic pressure declines throughout what?

the pathway

48

what type of cooperation is needed to maintain blood pressure?

coperation of the heart, blood vessels and kidneys. Also needs supervision by the brain.

49

what 2 factors come into play with the arterial blood pressure of the arteries close to the heart?

elasticity (compliance or distensibility)
volume of blood forced into them at any time.

50

blood pressure nea the heart is?

pulsatile

51

systolic pressure is pressure exerted during ventricular __________.

contraction

52

diastolic pressure is __________ level of arterial pressure.

lowest

53

pulse pressure is what?

difference between systolic and diastolic pressure.

54

what is mean arterial pressure?

MAP- pressure tha tpropels the blood to the tissues.

55

how do you figure up MAP?

MAP= diastolic pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure.

56

pulse pressure and MAP _________ with increasing distance from the heart.

decline

57

what is the range of capillary blood pressure?

15-35 mm Hg

58

high blood pressure in capillaries cause what?

would rupture fragile, thin walled capillaries.

59

Are capillaries permeable?

most are permeable.

60

Why are most capillaries permeable?

low pressure forces filtrate ito interstitial spaces.

61

Which type of blood pressure changes little during the cardiac cycle?

venous blood pressure

62

what is the pressure gradient of venous blood pressure?

small pressure gradient of about 15 mm Hg

63

what is the pulse?

pressure wave caused by the expansion and recoil of arteries.

64

what type of pulse is routinely used?

radial pulse (taken at wrist)

65

how is systemic arterial blood pressure measured?

measured indirectly by the ausculatory method usig a sphygmomanometer.
pressure is increased in the cuff until it exceeds systolic pressure in the brachial artery.

66

what is the examiner of blood pressure listening for when he is releasing pressure and listening with a stethoscope?

Korotkoff

67

when sounds disappear when the artery is no longer constricted and blood is flowing freely, this is known as what?

diastolic pressure

68

blood pressyre cycles over a __ period?

24 hour period

69

when do BPs peak?

in morning due to levels of hormones

70

what factors can help determine blood pressure?

age, sex, weight, race, mood, and posture may vary blood pressure.

71

what is hypotension?

low blood pressure

72

what is the range of systolic pressure for hypotension?

systolic below 100 mm Hg

73

what is hypotension often associated with?

long life and lack of cardiovascular illness

74

what is orthostatic hypotension?

temporary low blood pressure and dizziness when suddenly rising from sitting or reclining position.

75

chronic hypotension is a hint of what 3 things?

poor nutrition, Addison's disease or hypothyroidism.

76

what is an important sign of circulatory shock?

acute hypotension

77

what are 3 transient adaptations of blood pressure?

fever, physical exertion and emotional upset

78

what are secondary hypertension factors?

identifiable disorders, including kidney disease
arteriosclerosis
endocrine disorders such as hyperthyroidism and cushing's syndrome.

79

what is blood flow involved in? (5)

delivery of oxygen and nutrients, removal of wastes from tissue cells, gas exchange (lungs)
absorption of nutrients(digestive tract)
urine formation

80

the rate of low is prescisely what?

the right amount to provide for proper function.

81

velocity of blood flow changes as it travels through the systemic circulation. (true or false)

true

82

Blood flow is the ______ in the aorta, _______ in the capillaries, increases again in veins.

fastest, slowest

83

slow capillary flow allows what?

adequate time for exchange between blood and tissues.

84

what happens during ventricular systole? (3)

coronary vessels are compressed, myocardial blood flow ceases and stored myoglobin supplies sufficient oxygen.

85

at rest, control is probably ______?

myogenic

86

coronary vessles dilate in response to local accumulation of vasodilators during when?

strenuous exercise

87

when does blood flow increase up to 3-4 times the normal rate?

during strenuous exercise

88

blood flow through capillaries is known as what?

vasomotion

89

what is vasomotion?

slow and intermittent flow (because of the small size of capillaries)

90

what does vasomotion reflect?

the on/off opening and closing of precapillary sphincters