Microbiology Test 1

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1

What does mycorrhizal fungi do?

helps roots absorb nutrients from soil
ex-mutualistic symbiosis
ecto-outside roots
endo-inside roots

2

What are parasites?

lives in/on the body of another organism called a host

3

What is biotechnology?

production of foods, drugs,& vaccines using living organisms
ex- cheese, beer, wine

4

What is bioremediation?

using biological agents to solve environmental problems

5

What is genetic engineering?

manipulating the genes of organisms to make new products

6

What is ubiquitous?

small/everywhere

7

What does saprophytes/saprobes do?

decompose/recycle

8

What are parasites?

live on/in the body of another organism(host) & it damages the host

9

What are microorganisms?

live a free existence, harmless & beneficial

10

What is commensalism?

unequal relationship in which 1 species benefits w/o harming the other

11

What is Rhizobium?

can be added to plants
nitrogen fixing bacteria

12

What are the 6 microorganisms?

bacteria
viruses
fungi
protozoa
helminths(worms)
algae

13

What is mycelium?

huge bundle of mold
fungi that decomposes
a bunch of hyphae

14

What is ground itch caused from?

round/hook worms
ex-cutaneous larva migrans, creeping eruption, plumbers itch

15

What is travelers diareah called?

Giardia lamblia

16

What is trypanosome?

protozoan
African sleeping sickness caused from the tsetse fly(vector)

17

Impetigo can be caused by what bacteria?

Staphylococcus aureus/ streptococcus pyogenes
honey colored crust

18

What percentage of viruses can be linked to cancer?

15%

19

Who was the founder or nursing and introduced antiseptic technique?

Florence Nightingale

20

Name the 5 classifications of living things.

plantae
fungi
animalia
Protista
monera(procaryota)

21

What is phylogeny?

natural relatedness between groups of organisms

22

What is evolution?

new species originate from preexisting species
closely related organism have similar features b/c they evolved from common ancestral forms

23

What is nomenclature?

assigning names to different taxonomic ranks

24

What is identification?

determination of the taxonomic identity of an organism

25

What is a taxon?

group of organisms to be worthy of a name

26

What is rank?

category/level in a hierarchical classification

27

Who was Alexander Fleming?

father of antibiotics, discovered penicillin in 1929

28

Who was the first to observe living microbes?

Antonie Leeuwenhock

29

Who was Robert Hooke?

developed compound microscope, 1st to use term cell

30

Who discovered viruses?

Dmitri Ivanovski

31

What did Hans Christian Gram do?

introduced gram stain recognition of 2 major groups of bacteria
gram+/gram-

32

Who used cox pox to vaccinate for small pox?

Edward Jenner

33

What did Joseph Lister do?

introduces aseptic techniques to reduce microbes & prevent infections, 1st to develop surgical techniques

34

Who encouraged hospital staff to wash hands?

Ignaz Semmelweis

35

What is classification?

delimiting, ordering, ranking of taxa

36

What are viruses?

acellular parasitic particles composed of a nucleic acid & protein- not cells

37

What do dinoflagellates cause and why?

red tide b/c they release toxins & kill fish

38

What are pinworms?

nematode/roundworm

39

What are pathogens?

microbes that do harm
nearly 2000 cause diseases

40

What is the theory if biogenesis?

living things only arise from other living things

41

What is a theory?

supported by a bunch of data

42

What is a hypothesis?

tentative explanation supported or refuted by observation & experiment, supported by a bunch of data

43

What is sterility?

elimination of all life forms including endospores & viruses

44

What is taxonomy?

organizing, classifying & naming living things

45

What are the 3 top nosocomial infections in hospitals?

e-coli
staphylococcus aureus
streptococcus

46

What is the fungi that causes thrush?

candida albicans

47

What are the 5 microbiological endeavors?

immunity- vaccines
public health- epidemiology-study of diseases
biotechnology- food, yogurt, cheese
genetic engineering- BT corn- grapple
bioremediation- ex- oil spill

48

What is an example of bioremediation?

bacteria eating away at petroleum after an oil spill

49

What are sporocarps?

visible part of fairy rings, microscopic spore containing reproductive structures

50

Are microbes consumers?

yes, they eat to get energy

51

What is the binomial system of nomenclature?

system of naming
scientific name=genus+species
genus-capitalized underlined
species-lowercase underlined
typed-italicized

52

What are symbiotic organisms?

live in close relationships- 2 or more

53

What is mutualism?

both benefit

54

What is commensalism?

one benefit

55

What is parasitism?

one benefits one is harmed

56

What did John Tyndall and Ferdinand Cohn do?

demonstrated the presence of heat resistant microbes
Cohn- determined these forms to be heat resistant bacterial endospores(highly resistance hard to kill)

57

Who discovered that infections came with physicians from autopsy room to maternity ward?

Dr. Ignaz Semmelweis

58

Who discovered that mothers of home births had fewer infections than of hospitals.

Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes

59

What are eukaryotes?

complex cells, have nucleus and membrane
unicellular & multicellular, nucleus & membrane bound organelles

60

What is the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease know as?

Mad cow-1996

61

What are pseudomonads?

soil bacteria, used to decompose petroleum products/pesticides

62

What did Louis Pasteur do?

discovered that microbes caused fermentation & spoilage
disproved spontaneous generation of microorganisms
developed pasteurization
demonstrated germ theory of disease

63

What is a differential stain?

2 dyes-primary & counterstain

64

What is isolation?

separating 1 species from another
macroscopic product of incubating the inoculum

65

What is subculturing?

1 way to make pure/ideal culture

66

What is incubation?

growing the specimen under the right conditions
body temp 37c
always in the same condition they came from

67

What is inoculation?

producing a culture

68

What are the 5(6) I's?

inoculation
incubation
isolation
inspection
information
identification

69

What is acidic?

negative charge
positive stain

70

What is basic?

positive charge
needs negative stain

71

What is heat fixation?

fixes the specimen to the slide, kills the organism

72

What is drying and heating a film of specimen called?

fixed mount

73

What is resolution?

shows detail
separate 2 objects

74

What is a simple stain?

1 stain
positive stain

75

What is magnification?

enlarge objects
interaction b/w visible light waves & curvature of lens

76

What is an autoclave used for?

burns/sterilization

77

What is identification?

to species(strain)

78

What is inspection?

macroscopic/microscopic observations

79

What are the physical states of media?

liquid media- broths & milks
semisolid media-sim-sulfur,indole motility
solid media- liquetiable nonliquetable

80

What is aseptic technique?

sterile technique
sterile media & inoculating tools must be used

81

What is asepsis?

absence of contamination by unwanted organisms

82

What is a colony?

mound of cells of 1 species formed from a single cell

83

What produces endospores?

clostridium
bacillus
sporosarcina

84

What are the 2 basic cell types?

eukaryotic-membrane bound-nucleus
prokaryotic-no nucleus

85

What are the 3 basic shapes?

spherical
cubical
cylindrical

86

What are the characteristics of life?

reproduction/heredity
growth/development
metabolism
movement/irritability-reaction
cell support, protection, storage mechanisms, transport of nutrients, waste

87

What are the 3 parts of flagella?

filament-long, thin helical structure
hook- curved sheath
basal body- stack of rings anchored in cell wall

88

What is flagellin?

protein

89

What is glycocalyx?

sugary surface coating

90

What are the different flagellar arrangements?

monotrichous
lophotrichous
amphitrichous
peritrichous

91

What is the cell envelope?

external covering outside the cytoplasm

92

What are the 2 basic layers of the cell envelope?

cell wall/membrane

93

What is cytoplasm?

sugars, amino acids, salts
70-80% water
solvent for materials used on all cell functions

94

What are mesosomes?

folds in cytoplasm
increase internal surface area

95

What are chromosomes?

single, circular, can be doubled stranded

96

What are ribosomes?

2 subunits
found in all cells

97

What is germination?

return to vegetative growth

98

What are the 5 classifications of prokaryotes?

microscopic morphology-what it looks like
macroscopic morphology
bacterial physiology
serological analysis
genetic/molecular analysis

99

What are the 3 main types of arrangements?

chains
clustered
no arrangement

100

What are pleomorphism?

varies in shape/size
found in extreme enviroments

101

What is the dichotomous key?

series of questions

102

What is phonetic classification?

emphasizes morphological data

103

What is phylogenetic classification?

evolutionary relationships

104

What is classification?

ordering/ranking of taxa

105

What is a furuncle?

infected hair follicle/boils

106

What is a carbuncle?

a bunch of furuncle

107

What is necrotizing fasciitis?

a flesh easting disease

108

What is gonorrhoeae?

discharge in males
yellow growth in mouth
75% of women have no symptoms

109

What is borrelia burgdorferi?

limes disease caused by the black legged tick

110

What is the most common STD and is causes an eye infection?

chlamydia trachomatis

111

What is chlamydias?

tiny obligate intracellular parasites not transmitted by arthropods

112

What it chlamydia pneumoniae?

lung infection

113

Archaea

live in most extreme habitats
heat, salt, acid pH, pressure atmosphere
methane producers, hyperthermophiles(high temps)
extreme halophiles(high heat)
sulfur reducers

114

Appendages

outside cell wall
move or attach to stuff

115

Flagella

2 domains- bacteria & archae
rotates 360
prokaryotic-bacteria

116

Pili

made of pilin protein
only in gram- cells
sex pili join bacterial cells for conjugal visits

117

Gram+ bacteria

thick cell wall of peptidoglycan and cell membrane

118

Gram- bacteria

thin peptidoglycan layer & cell membrane

119

Yesinia pestis

bubonic plague- flea bite-fever, headache, tired
pneumonia plague- air borne-shortness of breath, death-not common

120

Domain archaea

adapted to extreme habitats

121

Domain bacteria

phylum proteobacteria-gram-
phylum firmicutes-gram+ low g&c
phylum actinobacteria-gram+ high g&c

122

Staphylococcus aureus

spherical clustered
food poisoning
ex- impetigo, folliculitis, furuncles(boils), carbuncles, TSS

123

Inclusions/Granules

storage bodies
vary in size, number, content