Microbiology Exam 1

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1

What is Spontaneous Generation?

an early belief that some forms of life could arise from vital forces present in nonliving or decoposing matter. (ex flies from manure, maggots/flies)

2

What type of experiment was done to disprove spontaneous generation?

Redi's Experimet

3

Who disproved spontaneous generation?

Louis Pasteur

4

What is the theory of Biogenesis?

The idea that living things can only arise from other living things.

5

Who proved the Theory of Biogenesis?

Louis Pasteur

6

Who had the first demonstration of bacterial disease?

Robert Koch in 1876

7

Who was Ignaz Semmelweis?

Austrian physician that realized that disease was being carried from the autopsy room to maternity ward. He also promoted hand washing. He look at death of mothers caused by puerperal fever or childbirth fever associated with childbirth.

8

What did Joseph Lister do?

An English surgeon who promoted heat and chemical sterilization. He introduced the aseptic technique to reduce microbes in medical settings and prevent wound infections.

9

Who was Florence Nightingale?

Founder of modern nursing and introduced antiseptic technique into nursing practice.

10

What did John Snow discover?

Figured out that the London Cholera epidemic in 1854 was caused from infected water pump.

11

What did Edward Jenner do?

Used cowpox to vaccinate for smallpox in 1796.

12

Hans Christian Gram

introduced gram stain, 1884.

13

Dmitri Ivanovski

1892, discovered viruses

14

What did the Electron Microscope do?

Allowed Virology to become a major discipline by 1950s.

15

What is Taxonomy?

Organizing, classifying, and naming living things.

16

Who started Taxonomy?

Carl Von Linne

17

What is taxonomy concerned with?

Classification (arragement of organisms into groups)
Nomenclature (assigning names)
Identification (determining and reording traits of organisms for placement into taxonomic schemes)

18

What is a Taxon?

a group of organisms of any rank that is sufficiently distinct to be worthy of a name. (plural=taxa)

19

What is Rank?

a category or level in a hierarchical classification.

20

What is the taxonomy list?

Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, genus, species.
(King Phillip came over for great sex)

21

Classification

the delimiting order and ranking of taxa

22

Identification

is the determination of the taxonomic identity of an organism

23

Norman Pace

came up with the tree to classify different types of microbes

24

Nomenclature

is the process of assigning names to the different taxonomic ranks of each species

25

Binomial System of Nomenclature

a system of naming requiring that the scientific name will always consist of a combination of the genus name and the specific epithet.

26

How is Specific names of species written?

Genus name is capitalied
Species is lowercase
both are italicized when typed or underlined when written

27

Phylogeny

natural relatedness between groups of organisms

28

evolution

all new species originate from preexisting species.
Closely relatedorganisms have similar features because they evolved from common ancestral forms.
Evolution usually prgresses toward greater complexity.

29

What are the 6 I's in studying microorganisms?

1. Inoculation
2.Incubation
3.Isolation
4. Inspection
5.Infomation Gathering
6. Identification

30

How do you incubate a microorganism?

In the same condition you found it in.

31

What is Inoculation?

Producing a culture.

32

What are common specimens for inoculation?

body fluids, tissues, foods, waters or soil.

33

Selection of media with specialized functions can improve later steps of isolation and identification. Some microbes may require a live organism as the inoculation medium (animal or egg).

...

34

Incubation

growing the inoculum under the right conditions

35

How long do you incubate for?

setting the optimum temperature and gas cotent promotes multiplication of the microbes over a period of hours, days and even weeks.

36

What is isolation?

separating one species from another. The macroscopic product of incubating the inoculum.

37

What type of culture is ideal?

a pure culture.

38

What is a colony?

A discrete mound of cells of one species formed from a single original cell.

39

What are the different ways to isolate a species?

Streak plate method, loop dilution (pour plate), spread plate.

40

What are the conditions for media preparation?

Asepsis and Aseptic technique

41

What is Asepsis?

the absence of contamination by unwanted organisms

42

What is Aseptic technique?

Sterile technique. Means that sterile media and inoculating tools must be used.

43

What are the 3 categories or media classification?

Physical state (medium's normal consistency), chemical composition (type of chemicals medium contains), functional type (purpose of medium)

44

What are the 4 types of physical states of medium?

1. Liquid
2. Semisolid
3. Solid (can be converted to liquid)
4. Solid (cannot be liquefied)

45

What are the types of chemical compositions?

1. Synthetic (chemically defined)
2. Nonsynthetic (not chemically defined)

46

Types of Function Types for media classification?

1. General purpose
2. Enriched- extra nutrients
3. Selective- (only certain things will grow)
4. Differential
5 Anaerobic growth-grows only organisms with no O2

47

Example of liquid media

Broths and milk

48

example of semisolid media

sim media
sulfur indole motility

49

semisolid media

has a stab zone that shows if media moves. Cloudy/ turbitity is how you can tell if it has motility.

50

Examples of Solid Media

TSA- was liquid and will liquify
rice grains- never in a liquid state
also can use cooked meat

51

What is synthetic media?

chemically defined, man made

52

what is non-synthetic media (complex)?

non chemically define.
example tsa- made from seaweed

53

What is enriched media?

For fastidious bacteria (hard to grow bacteria)
example- sheep blood agar, enriched TSA with blood

54

What is selective media?

only grows certain types bacteria.
example- MSA mannitol salt agar- will only grow staph species because of salt. (salt will kill other bacteria)

55

What does Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) Agar grow and what type of media is it?

It is a selective media that will only grow E Coli because of its antibacterial properties in the dye.

56

What does Mac Conkey Agar grow and what type of media is it?

It is a selective media that grows intestinal parasites.

57

What is differential media?

Media that produces some sort of change.
example- it causes a change in ph or color.

58

What is Thioglycollate broth?

Media that looks at oxygen requirement.
examples- Facultative Anaerobe, Aerobe, Obligate Anaerobe.

59

What is fermentation media?

Uses Durham Fermentation tubes and Phenol red to show PH and to see if it breaks down sugar. It also shows gas.

60

What is an Aerobe?
What is an Anaerobe?

Aerobe requires oxygen.
Anaerobe doesn't

61

What is facultative anaerobe?

Means it can do with or without oxygen.

62

What is obligate anaerobe?

means it can not live with oxygen.

63

What is subculturing?

The process of further isolation, to prodcue a pure culture.

64

Where do contaminated colonies usually form?

They hang out on the edge of the plate.

65

What is inspection?

4th step in culturing microorganism. It is macroscopic observation of the oclonies and microscopic observations (staining smears).

66

What is identification?

To identify the species and/or strain. The 5th step in methods for culturing microorganism.

67

What is an autoclave?
What is an incinerator/inceneration?

Autoclave is used to sterilize instruments with heat.
Incinerator is machine that burns to sterilize or destroy.

68

What is magnification?

the ability to enlarge objects.

69

What is resolution?

ability to show detail.

70

What is maginification in microscopes a result from?

an interaction between visible light waves and the curvature of a lens.

71

The extent of enlargement is the what?

Magnification

72

What were the 4 early types of microscopes?

1. Martin pocket microscope
2 Nairne chest microscope
3.Nuremberg "toy" microscope
4. Solar Microscope by Dolland

73

What is the total magnification?

is a product of the separate magnifying powers of the two lenses.
objective power x ocular power= total magnification.

74

What is Resolution?

The capacity to distinguish or separate two adjacent objects. It depends on the wavelength of light that forms the image along with characteristics of the objectives.
(example hands/balls, flagellar or legs)

75

When you have a shorter wave length, can you see the resolution and details better? true or false

true

76

Shorter wave lengths can?

Enter the small spaces and produce a more detailed image that is recognizable as a flea.

77

What is a Transmission Electron Microscope?

Transmit the electrons through the specimen.
Darker areas indicate more transparetn, less dense parts.

78

What is a scanning electron microscope?

provides a detailed three dimensional view. You can see surface.

79

Which microscope has to use a dead organism and can't see color?

Scanning Electron Microscope

80

Toxoplasma gondii is what type or microorganism?

Protozoan that causes toxoplasmosis

81

What type of preparation allows you to see live, motile organisms?

Wet mounts and hanging drop mounts.

82

What type of preparation is temporary?

wet mounts and hanging drop mounts.

83

What does wet mount and hanging drop mount preparations allow you to examine?

The characteristics of live cells, the size, shape, motility and arrangement.

84

What is a fixed mount?

a permanent prepared slide that is a smear that is stained using dyes for permit visulaization of cells or cell parts.

85

What type of slide is a hanging drop slide?

a depression slide

86

Do you need to use a slide cover with smear that is stained?

no

87

How do you made a fixed or stained smear?

Using heat fixation

88

What are heat fixations 2 accomplishments?

fixes specimen to slide and kills specimen.

89

What type of charge does basic have?

positive charge

90

what type of charge does acidic have?

negative charge

91

What are the advantages of negative or background staining?

size is more acccurate (because head is not suded which causes shrinking)
Better for spirochetes since they don't stain well (with a positive stain)
It is simpler to do (since there is not smear prep and no heat fixation)

92

If we have acidic and basic dyes to stain bacterial cells and if bacterial cells are negatively charged, which dye is going to do a better job?

basic or positively charged stains.

93

All bacteria cells are _________ charged?

negatively

94

What are the 2 subtypes of positive stain?

Simple stains and differential stains

95

What is a simple stain?

uses one type of stain.
example- Methylene blue, basic fuchsin or carbol fuchsin and crystal violet, malachite green and safranin.

96

What is a differential stain?

uses 2 dyes, primary and counterstain to differentiate between 2 cell tupes or cell parts.
Example- gram stain.

97

what are the steps for gram stains?

1. crystal violet, gram's iodine (mordant), alcohol, safranin

98

What is an example of acid-fast stain?

Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. leprae and some spp. of Nocardia.

99

What is the purpose of acid fast stain?

hard to get into the cell wall and acid allows you to get into the cell wall and stain.

100

Capsule stains

allow protection from phagocytes and has an outer gelatinous or slimy layer.
negatively stained background, positively stained cell and halo.

101

What is the purpose of a flagellar stain?

to visualize flagella with light microscope.

102

What is a flagellar stain considered?

special stain.

103

What are halophiles?

a type of extremophile. They can live in high salt contents, higher than the ocean. example- dead sea and salt lake in Utah.

104

What is Glycocalyx?

Surface coating of Prokaryote

105

What are the 2 major groups of Appendages?

Motility (flagella and axial filaments (periplasmic flagella)) and Attachment or channels (fimbriae and pili)

106

What are the 3 parts of Flagella?

Filament (long, thin helical structure composed of protein flagellin)
Hook- curved sheath
Basal body- stack of rings firmly anchored in cell wall

107

How does a prokaryote flagella move?

rotates 360 degrees

108

What are the 4 types of flagellar arrangements?

Monotrichous- sperm
lophotrichous- octopus
amphitrichous- tails at each end
peritrichous- all over

109

What is periplasmic flagella?

internal flagella that is between the outer sheath and the cell wall peptidoglycan.

110

What 2 structures is perplasmic flagella between?

outer sheath and cell wall of peptidoglycan

111

What type of motion does perplasmic flagella produce?

motility by contracting and imparting twisting or flexing motion.

112

What are Fimbriae?

hair like bristles emerging from the cell surface

113

What is the Fimbriae made of, and what are their function?

made of proteinaceous material and adhesion to other cells and surfaces.

114

what is pili?

rigid tubular structure that joins bacterial cells together for partial DNA transfer called conjugation. (cell sex)

115

What is pili made of?

pilin protein

116

Where are pili found?

only in gram negative cells

117

What is the cell envelope?

covering outside of the cytoplasm, maintains cell integrity.

118

What are the 2 basic layers of the cell envelope?

cell wall and cell membrane

119

what type of cell wall is there in a positive gram stain bacteria?

thick cell wall of peptidoglycan and cell membrane.

120

what type of cell wall is there in a negative gram stain bacteria?

thin peptidoglyan layer and cell membrane.

121

How does the gram stain work?

It uses alcohol to wash away lipid layer.

122

What are the 2 types of Glycocalyx?

Slime layer and capsule

123

how is the slime layer organized?

loosely organized and attached

124

how is the capsule layer organized?

highly organaized and tightly attached.

125

what are the functions of Glycocalyx?

protects cells from dehydration and nutrient loss.
inhibits killing by white blood cells by phagocytosis
attachemnt- formation of biofilms.

126

what does the cell wall do?

determines cell shape, prevents lysis due to changing osmotic pressures.

127

what is peptidoglycan a primary component in?

cell wall

128

how thick is the layer of peptidoglycan in a gram positivve cell wall?

20-80 nm

129

what does a gram positive cell wall include?

teichoic acid and lipoteichoic acid

130

what is found on the outer layer for a gram negative cell wall?

lipopolysaccharides

131

what is found in the lipid portion of a gram negative cell wall?

endotoxin, which may be release during infections.

132

What may function as receptors and blocking immune response?

outer membrane (lipopolysaccharides (LPS))

133

What is porin?

proteins in upper layer of gram negative cell wall.

134

What do porins do?

regulate molecules entering and leaving cells.

135

What is important basis of bacterial classification and identification?

the gram stain.

136

What are 2 difference in gram negative and gram positive cells?

gram negative have LPS and contain endotoxcins and gram positive have teichoic and lipoteichoic acids to stimulate specific immune response (antigenicity) from the patient.

137

what is it called when a gram positive cell wall structure has a lipid mycolic acid?

cord factor

138

What is the name of the organism that has no cell wall?

Mycoplasm

139

What is the cell wall stabilized by in Mycoplasma?

sterols

140

What does pleomorphic mean?

can change shape.

141

What is the phospholipid bilayer embedded with?

proteins-fluid mosaic model
phosphate head
lipid tail

142

what are the functions of the cell membrane?

providing site for energy reactions, nutrient processing and synthesis.
passage of nutrients into the cell and discharge of wastes.
cell membrane is selectively permeable

143

what is an aquaporins function?

water leaves through this

144

what is cytoplasm and what does it contain?

denses gelatinous solution of sugars, amino acids and salts. It is 70-80% waters and serves as solvent for materials used in cell functions.

145

What is mesosomes?

internal folds in cytoplasm.

146

What does mesosomes do?

increase the internal surgace area available for membrane activities. This is the internal surface of prokaryotic cell.

147

What does a Prokaryote have instead of a nucleus?

Nucleoid

148

What is an endospore?

hard to kill cell that is formed when a bacteria feels threatened and environmental sources are depleted. It hoards food if there are environmental changes.

149

Prokaryote chromosome is what?

single circular, double stranded DNA molecule that has genetic informationrequired by a cell.

150

Plasmids

free small circular double stranded DNA, not essential to bacterial growth and metabolism. Used in genetic engineering.

151

What do ribosomes doe?

make proteins

152

bacterial ribosomes are made of what?

60% ribosomal RNA and 40% protein

153

What are the 2 subunits of ribosomes?

large and small

154

How do the prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes differ?

in the size and number of proteins.

155

What is the site of protein synthesis?

Ribosomes

156

What are inclusions and granules?

a bacterial internal structure that serves as an intracellular storage body. They varie in size, number and content.

157

What are examples of endospores?

Clostridium, Bacillus and Sporosarcina

158

What is the 2 phase life cycle of an endospore?

Vegetative cell and the endospore.