Exercise 30: Anatomy of the Heart

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Exercise 30 pg. 453 - 455 Im making these notecards to help, so if you use them, please sign up and help add more notecards! And dont forget to rate my helpfulness!!
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1
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AN ANTERIOR VIEW OF THE HEART
(A - F)

A. BRACHIOCEPHALIC ARTERY
B. SUPERIOR VENA CAVA
C. RIGHT PULMONARY ARTERY
D. ASCENDING AORTA
E. PULMONARY TRUNK
F. RIGHT PULMONARY VEINS

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AN ANTERIOR VIEW OF THE HEART
(F - L)

G. RIGHT ATRIUM
H. RIGHT CORONARY ARTERY
I. ANTERIOR CARDIAC VEIN
J. RIGHT VENTRICLE
K. INFERIOR VENA CAVA
L. LEFT COMMON CAROTID ARTERY

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AN ANTERIOR VIEW OF THE HEART
(M - R)

M. LEFT SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY
N. AORTIC ARCH
O. LIGAMENTUM ARTERIOSUM
P. LEFT PULMONARY ARTERY
Q. LEFT PULMONARY VEINS
R. LEFT ATRIUM

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AN ANTERIOR VIEW OF THE HEART
(S - X)

S. CIRCUMFLEX ARTERY
T. LEFT CORONARY ARTERY
U. LEFT VENTRICLE
V. GREAT CARDIAC VEIN
W. ANTERIOR INTERVENTRICULAR ARTERY
X. APEX OF HEART

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WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE FLUID THAT FILLS THE PERICARDIAL SAC?

FLUID IN THE PERICARDIAL SAC ALLOWS THE HEART TO BEAT IN A RELATIVELY FRICTIONLESS ENVIRONMENT. TO REDUCE FRICTION DURING HEART ACTIVITY.

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LOCATION OF THE HEART IN THE THORAX

MEDIASTINUM

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SUPERIOR HEART CHAMBERS

ATRIA

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INFERIOR HEART CHAMBERS

VENTRICLES

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VISCERAL PERICARDIUM

EPICARDIUM

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"ANTEROOMS" OF THE HEART

ATRIA

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EQUALS CARDIAC MUSCLE

MYOCARDIUM

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PROVIDE NUTRIENT BLOOD TO THE HEART MUSCLE

CORONARY ARTERIES

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LINING OF THE HEART CHAMBERS

ENDOCARDIUM

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ACTUAL "PUMPS" OF THE HEART

MYOCARDIUM

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DRAINS BLOOD INTO THE RIGHT ATRIUM

CORONARY SINUS

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WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE VALVES FOUND IN THE HEART?

THE VALVES ENFORCE A ONE-WAY BLOOD FLOW THROUGH THE HEART CHAMBERS. PREVENTS BACK-FLOW OF BLOOD.

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WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE CHORDAE TENDINEAE?

THEIR CALLED HEART STRINGS, AND ANCHOR THE CUSPS TO THE VENTRICULAR WALLS.

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A SIMPLE SCHEMATIC OF GENERAL CIRCULATION IS SHOWN. WHAT PART OF THE CIRCULATION IS MISSING FROM THIS DIAGRAM? ____1_____ ADD TO THE DIAGRAM AS BEST YOU CAN TO MAKE IT DEPICT A COMPLETE SYSTEMIC/PULMONARY CIRCULATION. LABEL THE SYSTEMIC AND PULMONARY CIRCULATION

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1. PULMONARY CIRCULATION

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DURING THE SHEEP HEART DISSECTION, YOU WERE ASKED INITIALLY TO IDENTIFY THE RIGHT AND LEFT VENTRICLES WITHOUT CUTTING INTO THE HEART. DURING THIS PROCEDURE, WHAT DIFFERENCES DID YOU OBSERVE BETWEEN THE TWO CHAMBERS?

LEFT VENTRICLE FELT THICK AND SOLID, AND THE RIGHT FELT MORE THINNER AND EASILY MOVED AND FLABBY.

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WHEN YOU MEASURED THICKNESS OF VENTRICULAR WALLS, WAS THE RIGHT OR LEFT VENTRICLE THICKER?

LEFT VENTRICLE

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KNOWING THAT STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION ARE RELATED, HOW WOULD YOU SAY THIS STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCE REFLECTS THE RELATIVE FUNCTIONS OF THESE TWO HEART CHAMBERS?

THERES A GREATER DEMAND ON THE LONGER SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION (L. VENTRICLE) AND HAS A HIGHER RESISTANCE THEN THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION (R. VENTRICLE)

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SEMILUNAR VALVES PREVENT BACKFLOW INTO THE __1__; MITRAL AND TRICUSPID VALVES PREVENT BACK-FLOW INTO THE __2__.

1. VENTRICLES
2. ATRIA

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USING YOUR OWN OBSERVATIONS; EXPLAIN HOW THE OPERATION OF THE SEMILUNAR VALVES DIFFERS FROM THAT OF THE MITRAL AND TRICUSPID VALVES.

THE MITRAL VALVE (ANCHORD TO CHORDAE TENDINEAE) ALLOWS THE BLOOD TO FLOW FROM THE LEFT ATRIUM INTO LEFT VENTRICLE, TRICUSPID VALVE STOPS BACKFLOW OF BLOOD BETWEEN THE TWO (MITRAL AND TRICUSPID VALVES). THE SEMILUNAR VALVES (DONT HAVE CHORDAE TENDINEAE)PERMIT BLOOD TO BE FOCED INTO THE ARTERIES BUT PREVENT BACKFLOW OF BLOOD FROM THE ARTERIES INTO THE VENTRICLES

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COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE STRUCTURE OF THE MITRAL AND TRICUSPID VALVES.

THE MITRAL VALVE CONTAINS 2 FLAPS, AND THE TRICUSPID VALVE HAS A THREE FLAPPED VALVE.

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TWO REMNANTS OF FETAL STRUCTURES ARE OBSERVABLE IN THE HEART - THE LIGAMENTUM ARTERIOSUM AND THE FOSSA OVALIS. WHAT WERE THEY CALLED IN THE FETAL HEART, WHERE WAS EACH LOCATED, AND WHAT COMMON PURPOSE DID THEY SERVE AS FUNCTIONING FETAL STRUCTURES?

LIGAMENTUM ARTERIOSUM- CALLED (DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS) IN FETAL HEART, LOCATED BETWEEN PULMONARY TRUNK AND AORTIC ARCH. IN ADULTS LIGAMENT THERE NOW. ALLOWS BLOOD TO FLOW FROM THE PULMONARY TRUNK TO SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION.

FOSSA OVALIS - CALLED (FORAMEN OVALE) IN FETAL HEART, LOCATED ON RIGHT ATRIUM WALL (ALSO WALL OF RIGHT VENTRICLE). ALLOWED BLOOD TO ENTER THE LEFT ATRIUM FROM THE RIGHT ATRIUM.

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DIFFERENTIATE CLEARLY BETWEEN THE ROLES OF THE PULMONARY AND SYSTEMIC CIRCULATIONS.

DIFFERENCE IS THAT PULMONARY CIRCULATION IS STRICTLY TO PROVIDE GAS EXCHANGE IN THE LUNGS; WHEREAS THE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION PROVIDES THE FUNCTIONAL BLOOD SUPPLY TO ALL BODY TISSUES.

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CIRCULATION OF A RED BLOOD CELL IN THE HUMAN BODY:

RIGHT ATRIUM THROUGH THE TRICUSPID VALVE TO THE __1__, THROUGH THE __2__ VALVE TO THE PULMONARY TRUNK, TO THE __3__, TO THE CAPILLARY BEDS OF THE LUNGS, TO THE __4__, TO THE __5__ OF THE HEART, THROUGH THE __6__ VALVE TO THE __7__, THROUGH THE __8__ VALVE TO THE __9__, TO THE SYSTEMIC ARTERIES, TO THE __10__ OF THE TISSUES, TO THE SYSTEMIC VEINS, TO THE __11__, __12__, AND __13__ ENTERING THE RIGHT ATRIUM OF THE HEART.

1. RIGHT VENTRICLE
2. PULMONARY SEMILUNAR
3. PULMONARY ARTERIES
4. PULMONARY VEINS
5. LEFT ATRIUM
6. BICUSPID (MITRAL)
7. LEFT VENTRICLE
8. AORTIC SEMILUNAR
9. AORTA
10. CAPILLARY BEDS (BODY & HEART)
11. SUPERIOR VENA CAVA
12. INFERIOR VENA CAVA
13. CORONARY SINUS & CARDIAC VEINS

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IF THE MITRAL VALVE DOES NOT CLOSE PROPERLY, WHICH CIRCULATION IS AFFECTED?

PULMONARY CIRCULATION

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WHY MIGHT A THROMBUS (BLOOD CLOT) IN THE ANTERIOR DESCENDING BRANCH OF THE LEFT CORONARY ARTERY CAUSE SUDDEN DEATH?

A THROMBUS IN THE CORONARY ARTERY CAN CUT OFF THE BLOOD SUPPLY TO THE HEART, RESULTING IN THE VERY RAPID DEATH.

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HOW WOULD YOU DISTINGUISH THE STRUCTURE OF CARDIAC MUSCLE FROM THAT OF SKELETAL MUSCLE?

SKELETAL MUSCLE IS LONG, SYLINDRICAL, MULTINUCLEATED CELLS AND HAS OBVIOUS STRIATIONS. BUT CARDIAC MUSCLES ARE BRANCHING, STRIATED, HAVE USUALLY UNI-NUCLEATED CELLS THAT INTERDIGITATE AT THE JUNCTIONS (INTERCALATED DISCS)

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DESCRIBE THE UNIQUE ANATOMICAL FEATURES OF CARDIAC MUSCLE. WHAT ROLE DOES THE UNIQUE STRUCTURE OF CARDIAC MUSCLE PLAY IN ITS FUNCTION?

THE UNIQUE FEATURE IS THE INTERCALATED DISCS. THE INTERCALATED DISCS HAVE TWO IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS: 1. IT HOLDS THE MYOCYTES TOGETHER SO THAT THEY DO NOT PULL APART WHEN THE HEART CONTRACTS; 2. IS TO ALLOW AN ELECTRICAL CONNECTION BETWEEN THE CELLS, WHICH IS VITAL TO THE FUNCTION OF THE HEART AS A WHOLE. ALSO HAS MANY MITOCHONDRIA THAT PROVIDE ENERGY REQUIRED FOR CONTRACTION.

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LABEL PHOTOGRAPH OF CARDIAC MUSCLE

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