Developmental Psychology - Test 1 - Ch. 1 & 2

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1

The fact that development often involves continuities speaks to the fact that over time humans tend to

remain the same

2

Albert, a developmental psychologist, conducts research on children's emotional reactions to studying math in school. Albert is concerned with children's ____ development.

psychosocial

3

Key aspects of motor development:

- change in motor ability
- change in body organ efficiency
- change in skin tone

4

A defined age group in a society is called an age

grade.

5

Maturation is to learning as

genes are to social experience.

6

Urie Bronfenbrenner is BEST associated with the ____ model of development.

Bioecological.

7

The PRIMARY advantage of the experimental design over other research methods is that only it can be used to

uncover cause-effect relationships.

8

John Locke believed that human nature was

determined by a person's experiences

9

Learning thought to become more or less probable depending on consequences it produces (Skinner)

operant conditioning

10

Consequences that strengthen a response (increase probability of future response) (Skinner)

Reinforcement

11

something pleasant added in attempt to strengthen behavior, best when continuous and when skill first being learned (Skinner)

Positive Reinforcement

12

something unpleasant taken in attempt to strengthen behavior

Negative reinforcement

13

consequences that suppress future response

punishment

14

something unpleasant added in attempt to weaken behavior

positive punishment

15

something pleasant taken in attempt to weaken behavior

negative punishment

16

no consequence given and behavior becomes less frequent

extinction

17

emphasized positive reinforcement in child rearing

Skinner

18

Involves systematic continuities and changes from conception to death

Development

19

Three domains of development:

- physical
- cognitive
- social

20

changes in size and shape from conception to maturity

growth

21

positive and negative changes in maturing organism

aging

22

biological unfolding of plan contained in genes

maturation (nature)

23

external physical and social conditions

environment (nurture)

24

______ is an interplay between nature and nurture

Development

25

Periods of the lifespan:

- prenatal (birth), infancy (talking)
- childhood (preschool/ middle)
- adolescence (early, middle, late)
- adulthood (early, middle, late)

26

status, roles, privileges, and responsibilities based on age group

age grades

27

expectations based on age grades

age norms

28

sense of timing for life transitions

social clock

29

Considered founder of Psychology, had first laboratory in 1879

Wilhelm Wundt

30

Wrote "Elemente der Psychophysik (1860), "stimuli give rise to perceptions according to mathematical laws" Weber-______ Law.

Gustav Fechner

31

Started baby biographies, observed his own children, not systematic observations, late 19th century

Charles Darwin

32

Began very systematic observations, started the case study method, 1920's

Jean Piaget

33

First president of American Psychological Association

G. Stanley Hall

34

Types of Research Methods:

- Systematic Observation
- Measurement
- Theory vs. Hypothesis
- Operationalization
- Falsification

35

Three major methods of data collection:

- Verbal reports
- Behavioral observations
*Naturalistic
*Structured
- Physiological

36

_________ is the search for the relationship between variables

Research

37

Characteristics of Experimental Studies:

- establish that the IV is the cause of the DV
- causal explanations require experimentation and internal validity
- eliminate threats

38

Characteristics of Correlational Designs:

- does not imply causation
- patterns of correlation CAN imply causation

39

_________ study different age groups measured at the same time. provides information about age differences.

cross-sectional designs

40

_________ studies same group measured repeatedly, provides information on age changes.

Longitudinal Design

41

Cross Sectional Design, Strengths and Weaknesses:

- can determine cohort differences in behavior
- age effects and cohort effects are confounded
- relatively quick and inexpensive to conduct
- no information about development of individuals

42

Longitudinal Design, Strengths and Weaknesses:

- can indicate individual changes in behavior
- can show relationships between early and later behavior
- centers on only one cohort group
- age effects and time of measurement effects are confounded
- method is costly and time-consuming
- measures may become dated
- loss of participants
- participants can be affected by repeated testing

43

combine cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches, can untangle age effects, time of measurement effects, and cohort effects, method is extremely costly and complex

sequentail design

44

Qualities of a good theory:

- reflects the real world of humans
- supported by empirical evidence
- explain past results and makes predictions about future outcomes
- can handle new data and discoveries
- stimulate new research ideas and directions
- understandable, parsimonious, and internally consistent
- falsifiable

45

Six major theories of development:

- Psychoanalytic: Freud, Erikson
- Learning: Skinner, Bandura
- Cognitive Developmental: Piaget, Vygotski
- Ethological: Lorenz, Gottileb
- Social Attachment: Bowlby, Ainsworth
- Systems Theories: Werner, Brofenbrenner

46

prevailing way of looking at reality - bias about human nature

world view

47

English academic/ philosopher, children are selfish and bad, and society must teach them to behave in a civilized way

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)

48

English academic/ philosopher/ doctor/ empiricist - everything through the senses, tabula rosa, children born neutral - become what we make them

John Locke (1632-1714)

49

________ World View: Passive and react to stimuli, form a copy of reality based on experience - learning is reacting and trying to copy, reductionisit - fix/ break apart, focus on individual differences

Mechanistic

50

Swiss philosopher, natural state of humans is good, inborn capabilities lead to optimal developemental path, society (parents, educators, religious leaders, government) get in the way. children are little organisms, ready to flourish.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)

51

________ World View: humans not passive nor reactive but active organisms, self motivated to grow and develop - seek change, reality is not copied, but constructed, not reductionist - but holistic - whole greater than sum of parts.

Organismic

52

Viennese Physician and founder of Psychoanalytic theory. considered both a product of and a person beyond his time. Lasting contributions: emphasis on humans being driven by motive and emotions of which we are unaware, belief that we are shaped by earliest experiences in life.

Sigmund Freud

53

Libido expressed through two main channels:
-__________ - survival, sexual pleasure and reproduction.
-__________ - static equilibrium, resulting in death, postulated this after seeing so much self- and other destruction.

Eros & Thanatos

54

Behavior and Development (Freud) - _________ model

drive reduction

55

__________ - energy - ___________

libido, drive

56

Components of Personality:

id, ego, superego

57

all psychic energy contained here, seeks immediate gratification (pleasure principle)

Id

58

realistic ways to gratify instincts (reality principle)

Ego

59

adhere to moral standards (perfection principle)

Superego

60

Stages of Psychosexual Development (Freud):

Oral, Anal, Phallic Stage, Latency Period, Genital Stage.

61

Psychic energy needs gratification

oral stage

62

Oedipus and Electra stages begin to form

Anal stage

63

Oedipus and Electra complexes resolve

Phallic Stage

64

Development can become _________.

Fixated

65

Strengths and Weaknesses of Psychoanalytic Theory:

- Difficult to test and ambiguous (not easily falsifiable.
- Weak support for specific aspects of the theory
- Greater but limited empirical support for broad ideas
*unconscious processes underlying behavior
*importance of early experience and role of emotion in development

66

Important disciples of Psychoanalytic Theory

Neo-Freudians

67

Notable Neo-Freudians

Jung, Horney, Sullivan, Anna Freud

68

_________ is the most important lifespan neo-Freudian theorist

Erikson

69

- Less empahasis on sexual and more on social influences
- Less emphasis on irrational id, more on rational ego
- More emphasis on development after adolescence

Erikson's differences with Freud

70

- Trust vs. Mistrust
- Autonomy vs. Shame
- Initiative vs. Guilt
- Industry vs. Inferiority

Erikson Stages (Part One)

71

key is general responsiveness of caregiver

Trust vs. Mistrust

72

"terrible twos" considered part of this stage

Autonomy vs. Shame

73

- Identity vs. Role Confusion
- Intimacy vs. Isolation
- Generativity vs. Stagnation
- Integrity vs. Despair

Erikson Stages (Part Two)

74

adolescence acquisition of identity

Identity vs. Role Confusion

75

Young adult commitment

Intimacy vs. Isolation

76

middle age sense of having produced something meaningful

Generativity vs. Stagnation

77

elderly sense of life meaning and success

Integrity vs. Despair

78

_________ believed that personality was NOT "set in stone" during the first five years of life.

Erikson

79

_________ believed stage development was due to biological maturation and environmental demands.

Eriskon

80

Founder of the Cognitive Developmental Theory. Swiss Scholar. First scientific work at age 10. blended interest in zoology and philosophy - influenced by Charles Darwin. Emphasizes errors in thinking (wrong answers). Work was unknown in the US until writings were translated to English by John Flavell

Jean Piaget

81

active construction of knowledge based on experience.

constructivism

82

- Everything we see, hear is filtered through our "frame of reference". We construct our knowledge out of what we already know.
- drive for cognitive equilibrium

Mechanisms of Development

83

basic unit of stored knowledge

scheme/ schemata

84

processing and adding new things using our current schemes - what we know.

Assimilation

85

Sensorimotor Stage, Preoperational Stage, Concrete Operations Stage, Formal Operations Stage.

Stages of Cognitive Development

86

ranges from birth to age two. deal with world directly through perceptions and actions. unable to use symbols to help solve problems mentally.

Sensorimotor Stage

87

preschool age. capacity for symbolic thought arises. lack tools of logical thought. cling to ideas they want to be true.

Preoperational Stage

88

school-age. use trial-and-error strategy. perform mental operations in their heads. difficulty with abstract and hypothetical concepts.

Concrete Operations Stage

89

adolescents. can understand abstract concepts. can think abstractly and can formulate hypotheses. can devise "grand theories" about others.

Formal Operations Stage

90

Formed the Cognitive Mediation Theory. Born the same year as Piaget. Russian Psychologist who took issue with Piaget. very well read and educated in western philosophy. attended moscow university. his work was banned in Russia and completely unavailable to the west until the early 1970's.

Lev Vygotsky

91

According to Vygotsky, the child is a(n) __________, and development is a(n) _________.

Apprentice, apprenticeship.

92

Tools are "functions" that develop because of cultural impact development. Culture, especially in the form of language, shapes behavior and thinking. society helps shape and regulate the mind to further develop.

Cognitive Mediation

93

Learning theories

Everything is learned through experience. Reinforcement. Learning is gradual, so is development.

94

Known for Classical Conditioning. Rejected Psychoanalytic theory and explained Freud using learning principles. Rejects stage conceptualization of development. Believes children have no inborn tendencies, use environment determines which way they grow up.

Watson

95

belief that only observed behavior should be studied

behaviorism

96

Known for Operant Conditioning. emphasized positive reinforcement in child rearing.

B. F. Skinner

97

learning thought to become more or less probable depending on consequences it produces.

Operant Conditioning

98

consequences that strengthen a response (increase probability of future response)

Reinforcement

99

something pleasant added in attempt to strengthen behavior, best when continuous and when skill first being learned.

positive reinforcement

100

something unpleasant taken in attempt to strengthen behavior.

negative reinforcement

101

consequences that suppress future response

punishment

102

something unpleasant added in attempt to weaken behavior.

positive punishment

103

something pleasant taken in attempt to weaken behavior

negative punishment

104

no consequence given and behavior becomes less frequent

extinction

105

known for the social learning (cognitive) theory. believed humans' cognitive abilities distinguish them from other animals. observational learning is the most important mechanism for behavior change.

Albert Bandura

106

ways in which humans deliberately exercise control over environments and lives

human agency

107

sense of one's ability to control self or environment

self-efficacy

108

mutual influence of individuals and social environments determines behavior

reciprocal determinism

109

known for Organismic theory, also known for distancing. argued it solved the continuity/ discontinuity as both it is a synthesis of two opposing trends.

Heinz Werner

110

known for the ethological theory. major concepts: complex action patterns, adaptive importance, and evolutionarily significance. demonstrated imprinting and critical periods.

Konrad Lorenz

111

species specific behaviors have fixed action patterns. species specific behaviors (instincts) have specific releasing mechanisms (stimuli)

Ethological Theories

112

Critical to development is the formation of attachments to others.

attachment theory

113

Changes over life span arise from ongoing transactions and mutual influences between organism and changing world, no single end-point to development.

Systems Theories

114

Systems Perspectives:

- Brofenbrenner's Evolutionary Theory: individuals embedded in four environments
- Gottileb's Evolutionary Theory: development viewed in context of evolutionary history and interaction between individual and environment

115

-Influenced by Darwin's work
- Focus on how genes aid in adapting to the environment

Gottileb's Perspective

116

-Development product of interacting between biological and environmental forces in a larger system
-evolution has endowed us with genes
-predisposition to develop in certain direction
-genes don't dictate what happens in development

Epigenetic Psychobiological Systems Perspective

117

process through which genes and environment jointly bring forth particular course of development

epigenetic principle

118

normal species-specific environment contributes to normal patterns of development, instinctive behaviors may not be expressed if environmental conditions do not exist, genes do not determine anything, just partner with environment to influence behavior

Systems theories