Chapter 1

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Microbiology
Chapter 1
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1

obtain food by engulfing or ingesting smaller microorganisms

protozoans

2

worms

Helminths

3

insects and similar organisms

Arthropods

4

study of bacteria

bacteriology

5

study of algae

phycology

6

study of fungi

mycology

7

study of protozoa

protozoology

8

study of parasites

parasitology

9

study of viruses

virology

10

the study of chemical reactions that occur in microbes

microbial metabolism

11

the study of transmission and action of genetic information in microorganisms

microbial genetics

12

the study of relationships of microbes with each other and with the environment

mocrobial ecology

13

the study of how host organisms defend themselves against microbial infection

Immunology

14

the study of the frequency and distribution of diseases

epidemiology

15

the study of causes of disease

etiology

16

the study of how to control the spread of nosocomial or hospital-acquired, infections

infection control

17

the study of the development and use of chemical substances to treat diseases

chemotherapy

18

the study of how to protect humans from disease organisms in fresh and preserved foods

food and beverage technology

19

the study of how to maintain safe drinking water, dispose of wastes, and control environmental pollution

environmental microbiology

20

the study of how to apply knowledge of mircroorganisms to the manufacture of fermented foods and other products of microorganisms

industrial microbiology

21

the study of how to manufacture antibiotics, vaccines, and other health products

pharmaceutical microbiology

22

the study of how to use microorganisms to synthesize products useful to humans

genetic engineering

23

antimicrobial compound

copper

24

was a popular item to give to babies years ago because it was also considered antimicrobial

silver

25

What viruses is spread by the urine and/or droppings of rats that has no cure?

Haunta Virus (Y aseminite)

26

What could people tell from the pineyon pinenut in relationshion to disease years ago?

When more pinyeon pinenuts would show up it meant that there was a rise in humidity in the area, which also meant that the rodents would be out more, more than likely spreading diseases.

27

How often do scientists believe that a plague occures?

300-500 years

28

What plague would cause people to turn black where the virus entered the body at because the blood would clot there?

Bubonic Plague

29

This plague was also known as the black death

Bubonic plague

30

Rod shaped virus that can be treated with antibiotics

Versinia Pestis
(Bubonic Plague)

31

Scientist believe that how many cases of Versinia Pestis occur each year?

about 15,000

32

Where is the main parts of the world that the plague still exists

Madagascar and the four coroners of the United States

33

Why do rodents that carry the plague never get sick?

because they are resevoirs, which means they are where the microbe can persist

34

built many microscopes; credited with the first sketching drawings of microbes

Leeuwenhook

35

discovered cells and named them

Robert Hooke

36

How did Robert Hooke come up with the name cells?

He looked at plant material and said that it looked like little rooms which were at the time referred to as cells

37

known for proposing the cell theory

Schliden & Schwann

38

What does the cell theory state?

cells are the fundamental untis of life and carry out all the basic functions of living things

39

credited with giving the first innoculation?

Edward Jenner

40

man that proved once an individual was infected with cow pox (mild) the same individual could not get small pox (severe)

Edward Jenner

41

What contribution to microbiology is Lister known for?

initiating the use of dilute carbonic acid on bandages and instruments to reduce infection

42

What is the Human Genome Project's purpose?

to identify the location and chemical sequence of all the genes in the human genome (all the genetic material in the human species)

43

What is a microbe?

a microorganism

44

lacks a nucleus

bacteria

45

single-celled, multicellular microorganism that can either be microscopic or macroscopic

fungi

46

What is AIDS caused by?

a virus

47

In the mis-fourteenth century, bubonic plague claimed approximately how many lives?

25,000,000

48

Who used swan-necked flasks to disprove the theory of spontaneous generation?

Louis Pasteur

49

Louis Pasteur first created the pasteurization process to improve the quality of what beverage?

wine

50

Who is credited with developing the techniques for pure culturing?

Rober Koch

51

Robeert Koch won the Nobel peace Prize for his work on what?

Tuberculosis

52

The successful smallpox vaccine used material from what type of lesions?

cowpox

53

The process of using microorganisms to clean up environmetnal pollution is called what?

bioremediation

54

The theory that life can arise form non-living things was called what?

spontaneous generation

55

Cultures that only contain one kind of organism are called what?

pure cultures

56

Elie Metchnikoff found that what type of cell of the body can ingest microbes?

phagocytes

57

Paul Ehrlich discovered what drug used to treat syphilis?

Salvarsan

58

In 1952, Hershey and chase determined that the genetic material in viruses is what?

amino acid

59

Lysozyme is an enzyme with what properties?

antibacterial

60

The Human Genome Project has identified how many genes in the human genome?

25,000