A&P Final Exam

Helpfulness: +1
Set Details Share
created 3 weeks ago by jessjess2601
12 views
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

The brain and spinal cord develop from the ______ neural tube.

a) mesodermal

b) endodermal

c) ectodermal

d) cranial

e) cauda

c) ectodermal

2

This brain vesicle gives rise to the midbrain and cerebral aqueduct.

a) Prosencephalon

b) Mesencephalon

c) Rhombencephalon

d) Telencephalon

e) Myelencephalon

b) Mesencephalon

3

Which of the following is NOT a major region of the brain?

a) Brain stem

b) Cerebellum

c) Cauda equina

d) Diencephalon

e) Cerebrum

c) Cauda equina

4

Which of the following brain structures consists of the medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain?

a) Brain stem

b) Cerebrum

c) Cerebellum

d) Diencephalon

e) Dura mate

a) Brain stem

5

Which of the following brain structures consists of the thalamus, hypothalamus and epithalamus?

a) Cerebellum

b) Brain stem

c) Cerebrum

d) Diencephalon

e) Dura mater

d) Diencephalon

6

Which of the following meninges has two layers?

a) Spinal dura mater

b) Cranial dura mater

c) Spinal arachnoid mater

d) Cranial arachnoid mater

e) All of these choices

b) Cranial dura mater

7

This extension of the dura mater separates the two hemispheres of the cerebrum.

a) Falx cerebri

b) Falx cerebelli

c) Tentorium cerebelli

d) Tentorium cerebri

e) None of these choices

a) Falx cerebri

8

The adult brain represents only ____ of the total body weight.

a) 2%

b) 5%

c) 10%

d) 12%

e) 20%

a) 2%

9

This protects the brain by preventing the movement of harmful substances and pathogens from the blood into the brain tissue.

a) Dura mater

b) Arachnoid mater

c) Cerebrospinal fluid

d) Blood brain barrier

e) All of these choices

d) Blood brain barrier

10

Cerebrospinal fluid carries small amounts of chemicals like glucose from the ______ to neurons and neuroglia.

a) interstitial fluid

b) bile

c) intracellular fluid

d) arachnoid space

e) blood

e) blood

11

Which of the following is a fluid-filled cavity located in each hemisphere of the cerebrum?

a) Lateral ventricle

b) Septum pellucidum

c) Fourth ventricle

d) Third ventricle

e) Corpus callosum

a) Lateral ventricle

12

This is a narrow fluid-filled cavity found along the midline superior to the hypothalamus and between the right and left halves of the thalamus.

a) Lateral ventricle

b) Septum pellucidum

c) Third ventricle

d) Fourth ventricle

e) Fifth ventricle

c) Third ventricle

13

Cerebrospinal fluid is reabsorbed through these fingerlike projections found in the dural venous sinuses.

a) Choroid plexuses

b) Microvilli

c) Arachnoid villi

d) Dural villi

e) Lemnisci

c) Arachnoid villi

14

This is a netlike region of white and gray matter that extends throughout the brainstem and functions to help maintain consciousness.

a) Cuneate nucleus

b) Gracile nucleus

c) Medial lemniscus

d) Reticular formation

e) Decussation of pyramids

d) Reticular formation

15

This structure in the brain contains centers responsible for the “startle reflex” in response to loud sounds.

a) Superior colliculus

b) Inferior colliculus

c) Pontine nucleus

d) Medial lemniscus

e) Arbor vitae

b) Inferior colliculus

16

This region of the brain contains pneumotaxic and apneustic areas that help control respiration.

a) Spinal cord

b) Midbrain

c) Pons

d) Thalamus

e) Cerebellum

c) Pons

17

Pyramids are

a) gray matter protrusions found on the medulla oblongata.

b) white matter protrusions found on the medulla oblongata.

c) gray matter protrusions found on the pons.

d) white matter protrusions found on the pons.

e) a network of white and gray matter found in the medulla oblongata.

b) white matter protrusions found on the medulla oblongata.

18

Medullary nuclei are

1. masses of gray matter in the medulla oblongata.

2. masses of white matter in the medulla oblongata.

3. decussations of the pyramids.

a) 1 only.

b) 2 only.

c) 3 only.

d) Both 1 and 2.

a) 1 only.

19

Which of the following regions of the brain contains the inferior olivary nucleus?

a) Pons

b) Medulla oblongata

c) Pyramids

d) Hypothalamus

b) Medulla oblongata

20

Which of the following nuclei are found in the pons?

a) Pontine nuclei

b) Apneustic area

c) Pneumotaxic area

d) All of these choices

d) All of these choices

21

Which of the following is a nucleus found in the medulla oblongata that receives sensory information associated with touch, pressure and vibration?

a) Tectum

b) Superior colliculus

c) Substantia nigra

d) Pontine nucleus

e) Gracile nucleus

e) Gracile nucleus

22

Which of the following is a nucleus found in the midbrain that releases dopamine?

a) Substantia nigra

b) Inferior olivary nucleus

c) Inferior colliculus

d) Cerebral peduncle

e) Apneustic area

a) Substantia nigra

23

The cerebellar cortex consists of folia, which are

a) parallel folds of white matter.

b) found in the vermis only.

c) portions of the pyramids.

d) parallel folds of gray matter.

e) used in the RAS system

d) parallel folds of gray matter.

24

his structure carries sensory information coming from proprioceptors found in the trunk and limbs into the cerebellum.

a) Inferior cerebellar peduncle

b) Middle cerebellar peduncle

c) Superior cerebellar peduncle

d) Anterior lobe

e) Posterior lobe

a) Inferior cerebellar peduncle

25

Which of the following is NOT a nucleus found in the thalamus?

a) Anterior nucleus

b) Medial nucleus

c) Red nucleus

d) Reticular nucleus

e) Lateral geniculate nucleus

c) Red nucleus

26

Which of the following are NOT controlled by the hypothalamus?

a) Hunger

b) Thirst

c) Blood calcium concentration

d) Emotional behavior

e) Body temperature

c) Blood calcium concentration

27

Which of the following regions of the brain contain the pineal gland?

a) Thalamus

b) Cerebellum

c) Hypothalamus

d) Cerebrum

e) Epithalalmus

e) Epithalalmus

28

Which of the following structures conducts nerve impulses between the two different hemispheres of the cerebrum?

a) Association tracts

b) Corpus callosum

c) Projection tracts

d) Pyramids

b) Corpus callosum

29

Together the lentiform and caudate nuclei are known as the

a) globus pallidus.

b) putamen.

c) medial geniculate nucleus.

d) corpus striatum.

e) internal capsule.

d) corpus striatum.

30

Which of the following functional areas of the cerebrum is responsible for conscious movements of the body?

a) Broca’s area

b) Primary visual area

c) Somatosensory association area

d) Primary motor area

e) Primary somatosensory area

d) Primary motor area

31

Which of the following functional areas of the cerebrum is responsible for speech?

a) Broca’s area

b) Primary gustatory area

c) Common integrative area

d) Prefrontal cortex area

e) Primary somatosensory area

a) Broca’s area

32

Which of the following cranial nerves control movements of the eyeball?

a) II, III and IV

b) I, V and X

c) III, IX and V

d) III, IV and VI

e) X, XI and XII

d) III, IV and VI

33

Cranial nerve V is also known as the _______________nerve.

a) trochlear

b) oculomotor

c) trigeminal

d) vagus

c) trigeminal

34

Which of the following cranial nerves is responsible for regulating visceral activity?

a) Oculomotor

b) Trigeminal

c) Spinal accessory

d) Facial

e) Vagus

e) Vagus

35

Hand preference when writing or throwing is an example of a) cranial nerve damage.

b) hemispheric lateralization

c) damage to the olfactory nerve.

b) hemispheric lateralization

36

An electroencephalogram (EEG) measures brain waves primarily generated by

a) neurons in the pons.

b) neurons in the medulla oblongata.

c) neurons in the thalamus.

d) neurons in the cerebral cortex.

e) neurons in the cerebellum

d) neurons in the cerebral cortex.

37

Blood flows to the brain through the ________ arteries and away from the brain through the _______ vein.

a) internal carotid and vertebral; internal jugular

b) external carotid and vertebral; external jugular

c) internal jugular and vertebral; internal carotid

d) internal carotid and axillary; internal jugular

a) internal carotid and vertebral; internal jugular

38

Which of the following statements best describes the structure of the blood-brain barrier that provides its functional characteristics?

a) Processes of astrocytes wrap tightly around capillaries in the brain.

b) Tight junctions tightly seal endothelial cells of capillaries in the brain.

c) Gap junctions tightly seal endothelial cells of capillaries in the brain.

d) Spot desmosomes tightly link capillary endothelial cells together.

b) Tight junctions tightly seal endothelial cells of capillaries in the brain.

39

The central sulcus of the cerebrum separates the

a) two cerebral hemispheres.

b) frontal lobe from the parietal lobe.

c) frontal lobe from the temporal lobe.

d) parietal lobe from the temporal lobe.

b) frontal lobe from the parietal lobe.

40

Which of the following types of tracts are used to conduct nerve impulses between gyri within the same cerebral hemisphere?

a) Association tracts

b) Commissural tracts

c) Projection tracts

d) Mammillothalamic tracts

e) Stria medullaris

a) Association tracts

41

These three areas of gray matter found in each cerebral hemisphere are important in helping to control the initiation and termination of skeletal muscle movements.

a) red nuclei

b) vestibular nuclei

c) lateral olivary nuclei

d) basal nuclei

d) basal nuclei

42

Which of the following descriptions of a preganglionic neuron is NOT correct?

a) Has axons that exit the CNS in a cranial or spinal nerve.

b) Has myelinated axons.

c) Forms the first part of an autonomic motor pathway.

d) Has its cell body in the brain or spinal cord.

e) Forms gap junctions with postganglionic neurons in autonomic ganglia.

e) Forms gap junctions with postganglionic neurons in autonomic ganglia.

43

A postganglionic neuron in the ANS

a) releases neurotransmitter that binds to the effector cell.

b) is the first part of an autonomic motor pathway.

c) has its cell body in the brain or spinal cord.

d) has its axons exiting the CNS through cranial nerves.

e) carries information into the sympathetic chain ganglia

a) releases neurotransmitter that binds to the effector cell.

44

Which of the following types of neurons would normally have the shortest axon?

a) Somatic motor neurons

b) Preganglionic parasympathetic neurons

c) Postganglionic sympathetic neurons

d) Preganglionic sympathetic neurons

e) Somatosensory neurons

d) Preganglionic sympathetic neurons

45

Which of the following is NOT a parasympathetic terminal ganglion?

a) Ciliary ganglion

b) Pterygopalatine ganglion

c) Submandibular ganglion

d) Otic ganglion

e) All are parasympathetic terminal ganglia

e) All are parasympathetic terminal ganglia

46

The largest autonomic plexus is called the

a) superior mesenteric plexus.

b) renal plexus.

c) cardiac plexus.

d) celiac plexus.

e) hypogastric plexus.

d) celiac plexus.

47

The two main neurotransmitters of the autonomic nervous system are

a) nicotine and adrenaline.

b) muscarine and acetylcholine.

c) norepinephrine and muscarine.

d) norepinephrine and acetylcholine.

d) norepinephrine and acetylcholine.

48

Acetylcholine is released by _____________postganglionic neurons and is removed from the synaptic cleft at a ______ rate than norepinephrine.

a) sympathetic; slower

b) sympathetic; faster

c) parasympathetic; slower

d) parasympathetic; faster

e) both parasympathetic and sympathetic; slower

d) parasympathetic; faster

49

Which of the three spinal meninges is the most superficial? a) Arachnoid mater

b) Dura mater

c) Meninx mater

d) Pia mater

e) Epi mater

b) Dura mater

50

Denticulate ligaments are thickenings of

a) arachnoid mater.

b) pia mater.

c) dura mater.

d) interstitial fluid.

e) subdural space

b) pia mater.

51

Which of the following structures contains only sensory axons that conduct nerve impulses from sensory receptors in the skin, muscles and internal organs to the CNS?

a) Spinal nerves

b) Cauda equina

c) Anterior root of spinal nerves

d) Posterior root of spinal nerves

e) Conus medullaris

d) Posterior root of spinal nerves

52

Which layer of protective connective tissue is the outermost covering surrounding a spinal nerve?

a) dura mater

b) pia mater

c) endoneurium

d) perineurium

e) epineurium

e) epineurium

53

What types of axons are wrapped in a protective endoneurium?

1. Myelinated

2. Unmyelinated

3. Only dendrites are surrounded by endoneurium

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) 3 only

d) Both 1 and 2

d) Both 1 and 2

54

Spinal nerves:

1. Are parts of PNS.

2. connect the CNS to sensors and effectors in all parts of the body.

3. are named according to the region of the cord from which they emerge.

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) 3 only

d) both 1 & 3

e) 1, 2 & 3

e) 1, 2 & 3

55

Intercostal nerves:

a) are also known as cervical nerves.

b) do not enter into a plexus and directly connect to the structures they supply.

c) are found in the C6-T4 area of the vertebral column.

d) extend through the sacrum. e) do not exist in humans

b) do not enter into a plexus and directly connect to the structures they supply.

56

Which region of the spinal cord carries nerve impulses for proprioception?

a) Posterior white column

b) Anterior gray horn

c) Anterior white column

d) Lateral white column

e) Dermatome tract

a) Posterior white column

57

This type of descending motor pathway conveys nerve impulses that originate in the cerebral cortex and are destined to cause precise, voluntary movements of skeletal muscles.

a) Indirect pathway

b) Direct pathway

c) Reflex arc

d) Somatic arc

e) Muscle spindle

b) Direct pathway

58

This type of descending motor pathway originates in the brainstem and governs automatic movements that help regulate muscle tone, posture and balance.

a) Indirect pathway

b) Direct pathway

c) Reflex arc

d) Somatic arc

e) Muscle spindles

a) Indirect pathway

59

A nerve impulse initiated at a muscle spindle has to travel through which of the following structures to get into the spinal column?

a) Anterior root of spinal nerve

b) Posterior root of spinal nerve

c) Tectospinal tract

d) Central canal

e) Lateral reticulospinal tract

b) Posterior root of spinal nerve

60

A typical spinal nerve has how many connections to the spinal cord?

a) 1

b) 2

c) 3

d) 4

e) 5

b) 2

61

This branch of a spinal nerve serves the deep muscles and skin of the posterior surface of the trunk.

a) Meningeal branch

b) Rami communicantes

c) Brachial plexus

d) Posterior ramus

e) Anterior ramus

d) Posterior ramus

62

The thoracic nerves are also called the

a) brachial nerves.

b) lumbar nerves.

c) sacral nerves.

d) cervical nerves.

e) intercostals nerves.

e) intercostals nerves.

63

Which of the following lists the connective tissue coverings of the axons, fascicles, and entire nerve in the correct order?

a) endoneurium, perineurium, epineurium

b) endoneurium, epineurium, perineurium

c) perineurium, epineurium, endoneurium

d) epineurium, endoneurium, perineurium

a) endoneurium, perineurium, epineurium

64

Which of the following are divisions of the peripheral nervous system?

a) Somatic nervous system

b) Autonomic nervous system

c) Enteric nervous system

d) All of these choices

d) All of these choices

65

The motor portion of the autonomic nervous system can be divided into

a) somatic and sympathetic divisions.

b) somatic and parasympathetic divisions.

c) enteric and somatic divisions.

d) sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

e) voluntary and involuntary divisions

d) sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

66

Which of following organelles is a common site of protein synthesis in neurons?

a) mitochondria

b) nucleus

c) Nissl body

d) Golgi apparatus

e) nucleolus

c) Nissl body

67

With respect to neurons, the term “nerve fiber” refers to

a) an axon.

b) a dendrite

c) a Nissl body.

d) both axons and dendrites.

e) all of these choice

d) both axons and dendrites.

68

This type of neuron has one dendrite and one axon emerging from the cell body.

a) Multipolar neuron

b) Bipolar neuron

c) Unipolar neuron

d) Purkinje cell

e) Renshaw cel

b) Bipolar neuron

69

This type of nervous tissue contains neuronal cell bodies, dendrites, unmyelinated axons, axon terminals, and neuroglial cells.

a) Gray matter

b) White matter

c) Nissl bodies

d) Ganglia

e) Nuclei

a) Gray matter

70

Which of the following types of neurons is the most common type of neuron found in the brain and spinal cord? a) bipolar neuron

b) multipolar neuron

c) unipolar neuron

d) nonpolar neuron

e) pseudounipolar

b) multipolar neuron

71

Which of the following types of neurons have one axon and one dendrite emerging from the cell body and are found in the retina of the eye, inner ear, and olfactory region of the brain?

a) bipolar neuron

b) multipolar neuron

c) unipolar neuron

d) nonpolar neuron

e) pseudounipolar

a) bipolar neuron

72

Which of the following types of neurons is exclusively found in the cerebellum?

a) bipolar neuron

b) multipolar neuron

c) Purkinje cells

d) unipolar neuron

e) pyramidal cells

c) Purkinje cells

73

Olfactory receptors are found

a) throughout the nasal cavity.

b) only in the superior portion of the nasal cavity.

c) only in the inferior portion of the nasal cavity.

d) from the vestibule to the pharynx.

e) only in the mid-nasal ridges.

b) only in the superior portion of the nasal cavity.

74

The smell receptors that actually bind the odorants and begin signal transduction are located on

a) olfactory hairs.

b) glial cells.

c) basal stem cells.

d) Bowman’s glands.

e) gustatory receptor cells.

a) olfactory hairs.

75

Taste buds are found on

a) the epiglottis.

b) the pharynx.

c) the soft palate.

d) both epiglottis and pharynx.

e) All of these choice

e) All of these choice