Lecture- 10

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1

When the water availability in a country or region is below 2000 cubic metres

water stress

2

A situation when a country or region has less than 1000 cubic meters of water available per person, per year

water scarcity

3

when water resource falls below 500 cubic meters

Absolute water scarcity

4

Availability of an acceptable quantity and quality of water for health livelihood, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water related risk to people, environments and economies

water security

5

What is common to the greatest number gets the least amount of care. Men pay attention to what is their own: they care less for what is common

Tragedy of the commons

6

Internal and external water footprints

Amount of water available within a country and water imported into the country

7

how many percent of water comes from agriculture according to the global footprint

70%

8

what method of water treatment is used on ships to convert sea water to drinking water

Desalination/distillation

9

world largest salt producer

saudi arabia, uae and usa

10

Drawbacks/ problems of desalination

  • cost for poorer countries
  • uses a lot of energy
  • the extreme saline water, oil powers the electricity that desalination plant use
11

___________ the portion of the reservoir that can be used for flood control, power production, navigation and downstream releases- the water is used used for active energy generation

Active storage

12

___________ is the water in a reservoir that cannot be drained by gravity through dam's outlet works, spillway or power plant intake and can only be pumped out

Dead storage

13

_____________ is the amount of water it can regulate during flooding

Flood pool

14

capacity of reservoirs above the spillway that cannot regulated

surcharge capacity

15

the flood surcharge that the dam is designed to withstand

maximum water surface

16

Vertical distance between a slated water level and the top of the dam

free board

17

_________ determines when laminar flow conditions change to turbulent flow conditions

Reynold number (Re)

18

__________ is when Re < 500

laminar flow

19

__________ is when Re > 2000

turbulent flow