Sociology Midterm

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 9 days ago by Hayley
4 views
updated 8 days ago by Hayley
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

C. Wright Mills once said that sociologists need to develop a sociological __________ to study how society affects individuals.

imagination

2

Seeing patterns means that a sociologist needs to be able to:

identify similarities in how social groups respond to social pressure

3

Which founder of sociology believed societies changed due to class struggle?

Karl Marx

4

The difference between positivism and antipositivism relates to:

whether sociological studies can predict or improve society

5

Which of these theories is most likely to look at the social world on a micro level?

Symbolic interactionism

6

Kenneth and Mamie Clark used sociological research to show that segregation was:

beneficial

7

In a study, a group of 10-year-old boys are fed doughnuts every morning for a week and then
weighed to see how much weight they gained. Which factor is the dependent variable?

a. The doughnuts
b. The boys
c. The duration of a week
d. The weight gained

d. The weight gained

8

What method did researchers John Mihelich and John Papineau use to study Parrotheads?

Ethnography

9

What research method did John S. Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd mainly use in their Middletown
study?

Participant observation

10

Why is choosing a random sample an effective way to select participants?

Everyone has the same chance of being part of the study

11

Using secondary data is considered an unobtrusive or ________ research method.

Non-reactive

12

Which person or organization defined the concept of value neutrality?

Max Weber

13

Most cultures have been found to identify laughter as a sign of humor, joy, or pleasure. Likewise,
most cultures recognize music in some form. Music and laughter are examples of:

universalism

14

The existence of social norms, both formal and informal, is one of the main things that inform
___________, otherwise known as a way to encourage social conformity.

social control

15

Cultural sanctions can also be viewed as ways that society:

Regulates behavior

16

The major difference between invention and discovery is:

Discovery involves finding something that already exists, but invention puts things together in a new way

17

That McDonald's is found in almost every country around the world is an example of:

diffusion

18

What theoretical perspective views society as having a system of interdependent inherently connected parts?

Functionalism

19

The "American Dream"—the notion that anybody can be successful and rich if they work hard enough—is most commonly associated with which sociological theory?

Conflict theory

20

which of the following occupations is a person of power most likely to have in an information society?

software engineer

21

Which of the following societies were the first to have permanent residents?

horticultural

22

According to Marx, the ____ own the means of production in a society.

bourgeosie

23

The concept of the iron cage was popularized by which of the following sociological thinkers?

Max Weber

24

According to Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann, society is based on _______.

habitual actions

25

The Harlows' study on rhesus monkeys showed that:

social comfort is more important than food

26

What did Carol Gilligan believe earlier researchers into morality had overlooked?

The perspective of females

27

Why do sociologists need to be careful when drawing conclusions from twin studies?

The sample sizes are often small.

28

From a sociological perspective, which factor does not greatly influence a person's socialization?

Blood-type

29

How do schools prepare children to one day enter the workforce?

-With a standardized curriculum
-Through the hidden curriculum
-By socializing them in teamwork

30

Which of the following is a manifest function of schools?

Learning to read and write

31

Which of the following is not an age-related transition point when Americans must be socialized to new roles?

Infancy

32

What role do secondary groups play in society?

They are transactional, task-based, and short-term, filling practical needs.

33

A parent who is worrying over her teenager's dangerous and self-destructive behavior and low self- esteem may wish to look at her child's:

reference group
-in-group
-out-group

in-group refers to a group a person belongs to and feels is an integral part of their identity

34

Two people who have just had a baby have turned from a _______ to a ________.

dyad ; triad

35

In Asch's study on conformity, what contributed to the ability of subjects to resist conforming?

-A very small group of witnesses
-The presence of an ally
-The ability to keep one's answer private

36

Which type of group leadership has a communication pattern that flows from the top down?

Authoritarian

37

Which of these is an example of a total institution?

Jail

38

Why do people join utilitarian organizations?

Because they receive a tangible benefit from joining

39

Which of the following is not an example of bureaucracies?

a. coercion to join

b. hierarchy of authority

c. explicit rules

d. division of labor

coercion to join

40

What are some of the intended positive aspects of bureaucracies?

-Increased productivity
-Increased efficiency
-Equal treatment for all

41

What is an advantage of the McDonaldization of society?

a. there is more variety of goods

b. there is less theft

c. there is more worldwide availability of goods

d. there is more opportunity for business

there is more worldwide availability of goods

42

What is a disadvantage of the McDonaldization of society?

a. there is less variety of goods

b. there is an increased need for employees with postgraduate degrees

c. there is less competition so prices are higher

d. there are fewer jobs to unemployment increases

there is less variety of goods