Ch 8 Groups
What Is a Group
consists of three or more people who interact with one another and are interdependent (rely on each other for a goal/needs)
the degree to which a collection of people feels like a cohesive group.
Fostered by… similar characteristics, common cause / shared goal, shared threat
People who bonded together were better able to hunt and grow food, find mates, and care for children.
Groups help us to define who we are. An important part of people’s feelings of self-worth comes from their identification with particular groups, and so people care a great deal about being part of groups and about how their groups are valued.
Social Facilitation: When the Presence of Others Energizes Us
: Their performance is enhanced on simple tasks but impaired on complex tasks.
STUDY Norman Triplett Social Facilitation
cyclists who raced alone against the clock generally were slower than those who raced against competitors. Triplett suggested that the presence of another rider releases the competitive instinct, which increases nervous energy and enhances performance.
Robert Zajonc cockroach guy
depending on the task at hand which can affect performance in different ways, harder means decrease performance, easy means increase performance, demonstrated using tube mazes, easy maze better performance with audience
Deindividuation: Getting Lost in the Crowd
reduction normal constraints on behaviour (can be deviant e.g. crime) when people are in groups and are feeling anonymous.
Diener et al. (1976) annonmity and grps
kids took most candy when anonymous and in groups, similar amounts when not-anonymous in grp and anonymous alone
Potential productivity – process losses + process gains
Process Loss: When Group Interactions Inhibit Good Problem Solving
which is any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good decision making. Eg communication problems, coordination loss and social loafing
The finding that people reduce effort when working in a group, compared to when working alone.
More likely to have social loafing
if contribtuoin is not obvious/ if low rewards for performance.
Less likely to have social loafing
individual is recognized and rewarded, individual effort leads to better outcome, individual feel valued/irreplaceable.
Communication in grps Stasser & Titus, 1985.
using packets of info of colourized and numbered letters that denote positive/neg/neutral info, groups tend to focus on the information they share and ignore unique information known only to one or a few members of the group
The situation when the group performs better than we would expect given the individuals who form the group.
An increase in group performance that occurs when individual members try to exceed the other group members’ performance. This happens when individual contributions can be identified.
increase own performance to make up for real/perceived shortcomings of a weak link member
Weak link performs better to match others in group to not hold group back
Moscovici and Zavalloni Group polarization (1969)
French participants completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitudes toward General De Gaulle and toward Americans, attitudes become more extreme after grp meetings
Why grp think happens: Social comparison
First, individuals check how everyone else feels about the issue. Then, they take a position that is like everyone else’s but a little more extreme to conform with the group norms.
occurs when maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity becomes more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner.
Group Polarization: Going to Extremes
Group polarization causes groups to make more extreme decisions in the direction toward which its members were initially leaning; these group decisions can be more risky or more cautious, depending on which attitude is valued in the group.
occur when the most beneficial action for an individual will, if chosen by most people, have harmful effects on everyone.
Study social dilemma is the Prisoner’s Dilemma
in which two people must decide whether to look out for only their own interests or for their partner’s interests as well EX win all money/share money(Y) with oppentent (X). Creating trust is crucial in solving this kind of conflict.
which is a way of encouraging cooperation by at first acting cooperatively but then always responding the way your opponent did
Using Threats to Resolve Conflict
escalate rather than resolve conflicts. Communication,resolves conflict only when it promotes trust.
each side concedes the most on issues that are unimportant to it but are very important to its adversary.
great person theory
maintains that certain key personality traits make a person a good leader, regardless of the situation the leader faces. NOT true great leaders DO NOT have all the same personality traits
set clear, short-term goals and reward people who meet them
on the other hand, inspire followers to focus on common, long-term goals
is concerned more with getting the job done than with the feelings of and relationships among the workers.
is concerned primarily with the feelings of and relationships among the workers.
Study Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership
= task-oriented leaders perform best when situational control is high or low task is defined/ill-defined but able to take charge, whereas relationship-oriented leaders perform best when situational control is moderate, when stuff working smoothe and can pay attention to needs of team.