how does exercise reduce blood glucose levels?
by increasing glucose use by the muslces
the person with DM, regardless of type, is at increased risk for
acute and chronic complications involving multiple body systems
altered blood glucose levels affect the _____ and can cause an __________
vascular and nervous systems; increased susceptibility to infections
what is diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and who does it affect?
life-threatening illness that affects type 1 diabetics
DKA is characterized by
what individuals are at greater risk for DKA?
- has an infection
- decreased or omits insulin
- excessive physical or emotional stress
what is the most frequent cause of DKA?
exercise guidelines for patients with type 1 DM?
- exercise within 30-60 minutes of eating
- avoid exercise if ketones are present in the urine
exercise guidelines for patients with type 2 DM?
- if taking sulfonylureas, eat a snack before exercising
- include resistance-exercise (muscle strengthening) in the program
ketoacidosis alters acid-base balance, causing
the increased buildup of ketones depresses the CNS, leading to
coma and death if left untreated
what are kassmaul respirations?
when the respiratory center increases the rate and depth of breathing to compensate for the acidic state produced by DKA
what is ketonuria?
ketones in the urine
DKA is treated with
- fluids for dehydration
- insulin to reduce hyperglycemia and acidosis
- correction of electrolytes
what IV fluid is administered first?
0.9% NS to replace the sodium losses
after 2 to 3 hours, the IV solution is changed to
0.45% normal saline to prevent hypernatremia
when the blood glucose levels reach 250 mg/dL, what is added to prevent rapid decreases in glucose, causing hypoglycemia