Ch 12: Nervous Tissue

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1

________________ or glial cells are essential to survival and function of neurons and preserve structure of nervous tissue

Neuroglia

2

___________________________
Includes all nervous tissue outside CNS and ENS
Delivers sensory information to the CNS
Carries motor commands to peripheral tissues

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

3

____________________ carries sensory information from receptors in peripheral tissues and organs to CNS

Afferent division

4

__________________ carries motor commands from CNS to muscles, glands, and adipose tissue

Efferent division

5

_____________:
Detect changes or respond to stimuli
May be neurons or specialized cells
May be single cells or complex sensory organs (e.g., eyes, ears)

Receptors

6

_______________ target organs that respond to motor commands

Effectors

7

_________________ is a functional division of the PNS includes neural tissues carrying somatic and motor commands out of the CNS to muscles and glands.

Efferent division

8

_____________ are branches of an axon that allow the neuron to communicate with numerous cells

Collaterals

9

_____________ are slender processes that extend from the cell body and are the structures used to transmit information into the cell body

Dendrites

10

_______________ is the cytoplasm around the nucleus containing neurofilaments and neurotubulesright answer feedback:

Perikaryon

11

__________ are the end of axons and telodendria that often contain neurotransmitters used to communicate to other cells at a synapseright answer feedback:

Synaptic terminal

12

1) Reflexes, controlled by the spinal cord, act by
A) sensory output over cranial nerves to effectors.
B) motor input to reflex centers in the spinal cord.
C) sensory input to reflex centers in the brain.
D) motor output over spinal nerves to effectors.
E) sensory input over cranial nerves to the spinal cord.

D) motor output over spinal nerves to effectors.

13

2) The posterior root ganglia mainly contain
A) axons of motor neurons.
B) axons of sensory neurons.
C) cell bodies of motor neurons.
D) cell bodies of sensory neurons.
E) synapses.

D) cell bodies of sensory neurons.

14

3) Enlargements of the spinal cord occur
A) near the posterior median sulcus.
B) adjacent to the anterior median fissure.
C) in those spinal segments that control the limbs.
D) in the thoracic region.
E) in the sacral region.

C) in those spinal segments that control the limbs.

15

4) The ________ is a strand of fibrous tissue that provides longitudinal support as a component of the coccygeal ligament.
A) conus medullaris
B) filum terminale
C) cauda equina
D) dorsal root
E) ventral root

B) filum terminale

16

5) The spinal cord consists of five regions and ________ segments.
A) 5
B) 12
C) 25
D) 31
E) The number varies widely among individuals.

D) 31

17

6) The spinal cord continues to elongate until about age
A) 20 years.
B) 10 years.
C) 4 years.
D) 6 months.
E) 2 months.

C) 4 years.

18

7) Spinal nerves
A) contain only sensory fibers.
B) contain only motor fibers.
C) contain both sensory and motor.
D) contain interneurons.
E) only carry information unidirectionally.

C) contain both sensory and motor.

19

8) Which of the following associations is incorrect?
A) 8 cervical spinal nerves
B) 11 thoracic spinal nerves
C) 5 lumbar spinal nerves
D) 5 sacral spinal nerves
E) 1 coccygeal spinal nerve

B) 11 thoracic spinal nerves

20

9) Compared to the vertebral column, the spinal cord is
A) longer.
B) shorter.
C) the same length.

B) shorter.

21

11) In an adult, the conus medullaris is found at about
A) T6.
B) T10.
C) L1.
D) L5.
E) Co1.

C) L1.

22

12) The specialized membranes that surround the spinal cord are termed the
A) cranial meninges.
B) cranial mater.
C) spinal meninges.
D) spinal mater.
E) epidural membranes.

C) spinal meninges.

23

13) Blood vessels that supply the spinal cord are protected by the
A) spinal meninges.
B) spinal nerve.
C) white matter.
D) spinal columns.
E) gray matter.

A) spinal meninges.

24

14) The tough, fibrous, outermost covering of the spinal cord is the
A) arachnoid mater.
B) pia mater.
C) dura mater.
D) epidural space.
E) periosteum.

C) dura mater.

25

15) The layer of the meninges in direct contact with the spinal cord is the
A) dura mater.
B) subarachnoid space.
C) arachnoid mater.
D) pia mater.
E) choroid plexus.

D) pia mater.

26

16) Cerebrospinal fluid flows within the
A) filum terminale.
B) subarachnoid space.
C) dura mater.
D) pia mater.
E) arachnoid mater.

B) subarachnoid space.

27

17) The epidural space contains
A) cerebrospinal fluid.
B) lymph.
C) blood.
D) connective tissue and blood vessels.
E) denticulate ligaments.

D) connective tissue and blood vessels.

28

18) The subdural space lies between the
A) arachnoid mater and the pia mater.
B) pia mater and the dura mater.
C) dura mater and the arachnoid mater.
D) pia mater and the subarachnoid space.
E) endosteum and the periosteum.

C) dura mater and the arachnoid mater.

29

19) Samples of CSF for diagnostic purposes are normally obtained by placing the tip of a needle in the
A) dura mater.
B) arachnoid mater.
C) epidural space.
D) subarachnoid space.
E) cerebral ventricles.

D) subarachnoid space.

30

20) The ________ space separates the dura mater from the walls of the vertebral canal.
A) subpial
B) subarachnoid
C) epidural
D) epiarachnoid
E) subdural

C) epidural

31

21) Blood vessels traveling within ________ deliver oxygen and nutrients to the spinal cord.
A) the pia mater
B) the arachnoid mater
C) the dura mater
D) all three cranial meninges
E) all three spinal meninges

E) all three spinal meninges

32

22) During the procedure known as a spinal tap, a needle is inserted into the ________ in the inferior ________ region.
A) epidural space; thoracic
B) epidural space; lumbar
C) epidural space; sacral
D) subarachnoid space; thoracic
E) subarachnoid space; lumbar

E) subarachnoid space; lumbar

33

23) Of the spinal meninges, the middle one is the ________ mater.
A) epidural
B) pia
C) subdural
D) arachnoid
E) dura

D) arachnoid

34

24) The outward projections from the central gray matter of the spinal cord are called
A) wings.
B) horns.
C) pyramids.
D) fibers.
E) tracts.

B) horns.

35

25) Axons crossing from one side of the spinal cord to the other within the gray matter are found in the
A) anterior gray horns.
B) lateral gray horns.
C) posterior gray horns.
D) gray commissures.
E) white commissures.

D) gray commissures.

36

26) The white matter of the spinal cord contains
A) bundles of axons with common origins, destinations, and functions.
B) bundles of dendrites with common origins, destinations, and functions.
C) sensory and motor nuclei.
D) both axons and dendrites.
E) interneurons.

A) bundles of axons with common origins, destinations, and functions.

37

27) The white matter of the spinal cord is mainly
A) unmyelinated axons.
B) neuroglia.
C) Schwann cells.
D) myelinated axons.
E) nodes of Ranvier.

D) myelinated axons.

38

28) In the spinal cord, white matter is separated into ascending and descending tracts organized as
A) nuclei.
B) ganglia.
C) columns.
D) nerves.
E) horns.

C) columns.

39

35) The gray horns of the spinal cord contain mainly
A) nerve tracts.
B) columns.
C) meninges.
D) neuron cell bodies.
E) cerebrospinal fluid.

D) neuron cell bodies.

40

36) The posterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly
A) sensory nuclei.
B) somatic motor nuclei.
C) autonomic motor nuclei.
D) nerve tracts.
E) sympathetic nuclei.

A) sensory nuclei.

41

37) The anterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly
A) sensory nuclei.
B) somatic motor nuclei.
C) autonomic motor nuclei.
D) nerve tracts.
E) sympathetic nuclei.

B) somatic motor nuclei.

42

38) Nerve tracts or fasciculi make up the
A) central canal.
B) posterior gray horns.
C) gray commissures.
D) anterior white columns.
E) all of the above.

D) anterior white columns.

43

39) A viral disease that destroys the neuronal cell bodies of the anterior gray horn will
A) lead to muscle weakness or paralysis.
B) interfere with position sense.
C) mainly interfere with crude touch and temperature sense.
D) block autonomic regulation.
E) interfere with communication from one side of the spinal cord to the other.

A) lead to muscle weakness or paralysis.

44

40) Bill contracts a viral disease that destroys cells in the posterior gray horns in his spinal cord. As a result, which of the following would you expect?
A) loss of sensation in his torso
B) inability to breathe
C) problems with moving his arms
D) uncontrollable sweating of his feet
E) problems with moving his legs

A) loss of sensation in his torso

45

41) Mary is in an automobile accident and suffers a spinal cord injury. She has lost feeling in her lower body. Her doctor tells her that swelling is compressing a portion of her spinal cord. Which part of her cord is likely to be compressed?
A) ascending tracts in the cervical region of her spinal cord.
B) descending tracts in the cervical region of her spinal cord.
C) ascending tracts in the lumbar region of her spinal cord.
D) descending tracts in the lumbar region of her spinal cord.
E) the anterior white commissures.

C) ascending tracts in the lumbar region of her spinal cord.

46

42) The outermost connective-tissue covering of nerves is the
A) endoneurium.
B) endomysium.
C) perineurium.
D) epineurium.
E) epimysium.

D) epineurium.

47

43) The face, head, and cheeks are located in a dermatome supplied by nerves from what spinal cord region?
A) sacral
B) thoracic
C) cervical
D) lumbar
E) No spinal nerves innervate the dermatome containing the face.

E) No spinal nerves innervate the dermatome containing the face.

48

44) The layer of connective tissue that surrounds a fascicle within a peripheral nerve is the
A) perineurium.
B) epineurium.
C) endoneurium.
D) epimysium.
E) endosteum.

A) perineurium.

49

45) The layer of connective tissue that surrounds individual axons within a peripheral nerve is termed the
A) endoneurium.
B) perineurium.
C) epineurium.
D) metaneurium.
E) subneurium.

A) endoneurium.

50

46) In the condition ________, a virus infects posterior root ganglia, causing a painful rash whose distribution corresponds to that of the affected sensory nerves as seen in their dermatomes.
A) myasthenia gravis
B) mumps
C) shingles
D) polio
E) rubella

C) shingles

51

47) Each peripheral nerve provides ________ innervation to peripheral structures.
A) only motor
B) only sensory
C) both motor and sensory
D) either motor or sensory
E) motor and/or sensory

C) both motor and sensory

52

48) Which of the following describes the posterior root ganglion?
A) contains axons of motor neurons
B) contains axons of sensory neurons
C) contains cell bodies of motor neurons
D) contains cell bodies of sensory neurons
E) contains interneurons

D) contains cell bodies of sensory neurons

53

49) The anterior root of a spinal nerve contains
A) axons of motor neurons.
B) axons of sensory neurons.
C) cell bodies of motor neurons.
D) cell bodies of sensory neurons.
E) interneurons.

A) axons of motor neurons.

54

50) A posterior and anterior root of each spinal segment unite to form a
A) cervical enlargement.
B) lumbar enlargement.
C) spinal nerve.
D) spinal meninx.
E) spinal ganglion.

C) spinal nerve.

55

51) The preganglionic fibers that carry visceral motor fibers and connect a spinal nerve with an sympathetic ganglion form the
A) white rami communicans.
B) gray rami communicans.
C) posterior ramus.
D) anterior ramus.
E) dermatomes.

A) white rami communicans.

56

52) The postganglionic fibers that connect an sympathetic ganglion and carry fibers that innervate glands and smooth muscle of the body wall or limbs are the
A) white rami communicans.
B) gray rami communicans.
C) posterior ramus.
D) anterior ramus.
E) dermatomes.

B) gray rami communicans.

57

53) Sensory input from interoceptors of the body walls and limbs is carried to the spinal nerve via the
A) posterior rami.
B) anterior rami.
C) anterior horn.
D) gray rami.
E) sympathetic nerves.

B) anterior rami.

58

54) The ________ of each spinal nerve innervates the skin and muscles of the back.
A) white ramus communicans
B) gray ramus communicans
C) posterior ramus
D) anterior ramus
E) dermatome

C) posterior ramus

59

55) The ________ innervate(s) the ventrolateral body surface, structures in the body wall, and the limbs.
A) white rami communicans
B) gray rami communicans
C) posterior ramus
D) anterior ramus
E) dermatomes

D) anterior ramus

60

60) In which structure are sensory cell bodies located?
A) 4
B) 6
C) 5
D) 10
E) 12

D) 10

61

61) If the posterior root of a spinal nerve is severed,
A) output to skeletal muscles would be blocked.
B) output to visceral organs would be blocked.
C) the spinal cord would not be able to process information at that level.
D) the brain would not be able to communicate with that level of the spinal cord.
E) sensory input would be blocked.

E) sensory input would be blocked.

62

62) Suppose that you feel something brushing against your abdomen. The sensory information would be carried to the spinal cord over a ________ ramus.
A) white ramus communicans
B) gray ramus communicans
C) posterior
D) anterior
E) rami communicantes

D) anterior

63

63) Somatic motor neurons in the spinal cord control all of the following muscles except those that
A) position the pectoral girdle.
B) move the arm.
C) move the hand and fingers.
D) move the face.
E) move the forearm and hand.

D) move the face.

64

64) The ________ plexus supplies innervation to the diaphragm.
A) spinal
B) cervical
C) thoracic
D) lumbar
E) sacral

B) cervical

65

65) A complex, interwoven network of nerves is called a
A) nerve ganglion.
B) nerve plexus.
C) spinal cord.
D) spinal plexus.
E) ramus.

B) nerve plexus.

66

66) The complex, interwoven network formed by contributions from the anterior rami of neighboring spinal nerves is termed a(n)
A) dermatome.
B) autonomic nerve.
C) lateral nerve.
D) tract.
E) plexus.

E) plexus.

67

67) The anterior rami form four major plexuses, including all of the following except the ________ plexus.
A) brachial
B) lumbar
C) sacral
D) nuchal
E) cervical

D) nuchal

68

68) The nerve crucial for breathing that originates within the cervical plexus is called the ________ nerve.
A) ansa cervicalis
B) great auricular
C) transverse cervical
D) phrenic
E) supraclavicular

D) phrenic

69

69) The ________ nerve, which arises in the cervical plexus, innervates the diaphragm.
A) ansa cervicalis
B) lesser occipital
C) radial
D) phrenic
E) sciatic

D) phrenic

70

70) If a person has a crush injury to the C3-C5 spinal segments, you would expect that he
A) might be unable to breathe on his own.
B) could walk without difficulty.
C) would have full range of motion in all extremities.
D) would be in a coma.
E) would exhibit none of the above.

A) might be unable to breathe on his own.

71

71) The ventral rami of spinal nerves C4 to T1 contribute fibers to the ________ plexus.
A) cervical
B) brachial
C) lumbar
D) sacral
E) thoracic

B) brachial

72

72) In which plexus does the ulnar nerve arise?
A) cranial
B) cervical
C) brachial
D) lumbar
E) sacral

C) brachial

73

73) The brachial plexus gives rise to all of the following nerves except the
A) radial.
B) median.
C) ulnar.
D) musculocutaneous.
E) phrenic.

E) phrenic.

74

74) Each of the following nerves originates in the lumbar plexus except the ________ nerve.
A) saphenous
B) sciatic
C) femoral
D) obturator
E) genitofemoral

B) sciatic

75

75) The obturator nerve is distributed to the
A) adductors of the hip.
B) skin over the perineum.
C) extensors of the hip.
D) skin over buttocks.
E) biceps femoris.

A) adductors of the hip.

76

76) As the ________ nerve approaches the knee, it divides into two branches, the fibular nerve and the tibial nerve.
A) perineal
B) femoral
C) brachial
D) pudendal
E) sciatic

E) sciatic

77

77) Spinal nerves from the sacral region of the cord innervate the ________ muscles.
A) shoulder
B) intercostal
C) abdominal
D) leg
E) facial

D) leg

78

78) In a ________ neuronal pool, one neuron synapses on several postsynaptic neurons.
A) parallel processing
B) reverberating
C) converging
D) diverging
E) serial processing

D) diverging

79

79) In ________, axon collaterals extend back toward the source of the impulse and further stimulate the earlier neurons.
A) parallel processing
B) reverberation
C) convergence
D) divergence
E) serial processing

B) reverberation

80

80) Recognized neuronal circuit patterns include all of the following except
A) convergent.
B) divergent.
C) multipolar.
D) reverberating.
E) parallel processing.

C) multipolar.

81

81) Reflexes can be classified according to all of the following except
A) where they are initiated.
B) where information processing occurs.
C) the motor response.
D) the complexity of the neural circuit.
E) whether they are sensory or motor.

E) whether they are sensory or motor.

82

82) Reflexes based on synapses formed during development are ________ reflexes.
A) visceral
B) innate
C) acquired
D) somatic
E) vegetative

B) innate

83

83) All of the following are true of neural reflexes except that they
A) are automatic motor responses.
B) are the simplest form of behavior.
C) help preserve homeostasis.
D) usually cannot be suppressed by the brain.
E) involve at least two neurons.

D) usually cannot be suppressed by the brain.

84

84) All of the following terms refer to ways that reflexes can be classified except
A) intersegmental.
B) polysynaptic.
C) innate.
D) voluntary.
E) somatic.

D) voluntary.

85

85) In a(n) ________ reflex, a sensory neuron synapses directly on a motor neuron.
A) sensory
B) motor
C) polysynaptic
D) monosynaptic
E) integrative

D) monosynaptic

86

86) A(n) ________ reflex has at least one interneuron placed between the sensory and motor neurons.
A) sensory
B) motor
C) polysynaptic
D) monosynaptic
E) integrative

C) polysynaptic

87

87) The stretch reflex
A) is an example of a polysynaptic reflex.
B) is important in regulating muscle length.
C) involves a receptor called the Golgi tendon organ.
D) is activated when a smooth muscle lengthens.
E) is voluntary.

B) is important in regulating muscle length.

88

88) All of the following are true of muscle spindles except that they
A) are found within skeletal muscle.
B) consist of specialized fibers called intrafusal fibers.
C) are found in tendons.
D) are the receptor for the stretch reflex.
E) are innervated by gamma motor neurons.

C) are found in tendons.

89

89) All of the following are a part of a monosynaptic reflex arc except
A) effector.
B) interneuron.
C) CNS processing.
D) motor neuron.
E) sensory neuron.

B) interneuron.

90

90) The myotatic reflex is also known as the ________ reflex.
A) stretch
B) tendon
C) flexor
D) crossed extensor
E) reciprocal

A) stretch

91

91) In which of the following would the delay between stimulus and response be greater?
A) a monosynaptic ipsilateral reflex
B) a polysynaptic ipsilateral reflex
C) a monosynaptic contralateral reflex
D) a polysynaptic contralateral reflex

D) a polysynaptic contralateral reflex

92

92) All of the following are true of polysynaptic reflexes except that they
A) are arranged according to dermatomes.
B) are intersegmental in distribution.
C) involve reciprocal innervation.
D) have reverberating circuits that prolong the reflexive motor response.
E) involve pools of interneurons.

A) are arranged according to dermatomes.

93

93) The flexor reflex
A) prevents a muscle from overstretching.
B) prevents a muscle from generating damaging tension.
C) moves a limb away from a painful stimulus.
D) usually depends on cranial neurons.
E) is an example of a monosynaptic reflex.

C) moves a limb away from a painful stimulus.

94

94) The ________ reflex complements the flexor reflex by activating contralateral muscles.
A) stretch
B) tendon
C) flexor
D) crossed extensor
E) reciprocal

D) crossed extensor

95

95) Spinal interneurons inhibit antagonist motor neurons in a process called
A) a crossed extensor reflex.
B) a stretch reflex.
C) a tendon reflex.
D) reciprocal inhibition.
E) reverberating circuits.

D) reciprocal inhibition.

96

96) Reflexes that activate muscles on the same side of the body as the stimulus are called
A) ipsilateral.
B) bilateral.
C) contralateral.
D) collateral.
E) antilateral.

A) ipsilateral.

97

97) Reflexes that activate muscles on the opposite side of the body as the stimulus are called
A) ipsilateral.
B) bilateral.
C) contralateral.
D) collateral.
E) antilateral.

C) contralateral.

98

98) Which of the following is not true about a positive Babinski reflex?
A) normal in newborns
B) abnormal in adults
C) a sign of injury to descending spinal tracts
D) causes you to close your eyes when you sneeze
E) causes flaring of the toes when the sole is stroked

D) causes you to close your eyes when you sneeze

99

99) Tina falls while climbing a tree and lands on her back. Her frightened parents take her to the emergency room, where she is examined. Her knee-jerk reflex is normal and she exhibits a plantar reflex (negative Babinski reflex). These results suggest that
A) Tina has injured one of her descending nerve tracts.
B) Tina has injured one of her ascending nerve tracts.
C) Tina has a spinal injury in the lumbar region.
D) Tina has a spinal injury in the cervical region.
E) Tina suffered no damage to her spinal cord.

E) Tina suffered no damage to her spinal cord.

100

100) Which of the following is not true of the spinal cord?
A) It interacts with the muscular system to provide involuntary movement.
B) It interacts with the digestive system by receiving sensory signals from the stomach.
C) It interacts with the urinary by receiving sensory signals from the bladder.
D) It interacts with the muscular system by initiating voluntary movement of skeletal muscles.

D) It interacts with the muscular system by initiating

101

107) What is the significance of the cauda equina?
A) It is the shallow longitudinal groove on the posterior surface of the spinal cord.
B) It contains the cell bodies of sensory neurons whose axons carry information to the spinal cord.
C) It is made up of extensions of the posterior and anterior roots of spinal segments L2 to S5. It forms as the vertebral column continues to elongate after growth of the spinal cord ceases at about age 4.
D) It contains the axons of motor neurons that extend into the periphery to control somatic and visceral effectors.
E) It is slender strand of fibrous tissue that extends from the inferior tip of the conus medullaris to the second sacral vertebra. It provides longitudinal support to the spinal cord as a component of the coccygeal ligament.

C) It is made up of extensions of the posterior and anterior roots of spinal segments L2 to S5. It forms as the vertebral column continues to elongate after growth of the spinal cord ceases at about age 4.

102

106) Describe the composition of the gray matter of the spinal cord. (Module 12.2D)
A) myelinated axons
B) cell bodies of neurons, neuroglia, and unmyelinated axons
C) myelinated axons and unmyelinated axons
D) neuroglia and spinal meninges
E) spinal meninges

B) cell bodies of neurons, neuroglia, and unmyelinated axons

103

108) Where is spinal CSF located?
A) subarachnoid space
B) epidural space
C) subdural space
D) intervertebral foramina
E) between pedicles of adjacent vertebrae

A) subarachnoid space

104

109) Name the structures and spinal coverings that are penetrated during a lumbar puncture procedure.
A) epidermis, dermis, skeletal muscle, subarachnoid space, arachnoid mater, dura mater, pia mater, subdural space
B) dermis, epidermis, skeletal muscle, pia mater, arachnoid mater, dura mater, subdural space
C) dermis, epidermis, skeletal muscle, dura mater, pia mater, arachnoid mater, subdural space
D) epidermis, dermis, skeletal muscle, dura mater, arachnoid mater, subarachnoid space
E) epidermis, dermis, skeletal muscle, pia mater, arachnoid mater, subarachnoid space

D) epidermis, dermis, skeletal muscle, dura mater, arachnoid mater, subarachnoid space

105

110) Differentiate between sensory nuclei and motor nuclei.
A) Sensory nuclei receive and relay sensory information to peripheral receptors; motor nuclei issue motor commands to peripheral receptors.
B) Sensory nuclei receive and relay sensory information from peripheral receptors; motor nuclei issue motor commands to peripheral receptors.
C) Sensory nuclei receive and relay sensory information from peripheral receptors; motor nuclei issue motor commands from peripheral receptors.
D) Sensory nuclei receive and relay sensory information to peripheral receptors; motor nuclei issue motor commands from peripheral receptors.
E) Sensory nuclei receive and relay sensory information from the CNS; motor nuclei issue motor commands to the CNS.

B) Sensory nuclei receive and relay sensory information from peripheral receptors; motor nuclei issue motor commands to peripheral receptors.

106

111) A person with polio has lost the use of his leg muscles. In which area of his spinal cord would you expect the virus-infected motor neurons to be?
A) anterior gray horns
B) posterior gray horns
C) lateral gray horns
D) posterior white column
E) gray commissuresA

A) anterior gray horns

107

112) A disease that damages myelin sheaths would affect which portion of the spinal cord?
A) anterior gray horns
B) posterior gray horns
C) lateral gray horns
D) white matter columns
E) gray commissures

D) white matter columns

108

113) Identify the three layers of connective tissue of a spinal nerve, and identify the major peripheral branches of a spinal nerve.
A) outer epineurium, middle perineurium, and inner endoneurium; posterior ramus, anterior ramus, and rami communicantes
B) outer perineurium, middle epineurium, and inner endoneurium; posterior ramus, anterior ramus, and rami communicantes
C) outer endoneurium, middle epineurium, and inner perineurium; posterior ramus, anterior ramus, and rami communicantes
D) outer perineurium, middle endoneurium, and inner epineurium; posterior ramus, anterior ramus, and rami communicantes
E) outer endoneurium, middle perineurium, and inner epineurium; posterior ramus, anterior ramus, and rami communicantes

A) outer epineurium, middle perineurium, and inner endoneurium; posterior ramus, anterior ramus, and rami communicantes

109

114) Describe a dermatome. (Module 12.5B)
A) A dermatome is the total area of skin that contains sensory neurons.
B) A dermatome is the region of skeletal muscle that can respond to spinal reflexes.
C) A dermatome is the sensory region that can trigger spinal reflexes.
D) A dermatome is the unilateral sensory region monitored by a single sensory nerve.
E) A dermatome is the bilateral sensory region monitored by a single pair of spinal nerves.

E) A dermatome is the bilateral sensory region monitored by a single pair of spinal nerves.

110

115) Which ramus carries sensory information from the limbs?
A) anterior ramus
B) posterior ramus
C) medial ramus
D) lateral ramus
E) rami communicantes

A) anterior ramus

111

116) Through which root of a spinal nerve does visceral sensory information arrive?
A) anterior root
B) posterior root
C) anterior root if the sensory receptors are on the anterior portion of the body and posterior root if the sensory receptors are on the posterior surface of the body
D) anterior root if the sensory receptors are superior to the spinal cord and posterior root if the sensory receptors are inferior to the spinal cord
E) both anterior root and posterior root can receive visceral sensory information

B) posterior root

112

117) Which ramus provides sensory and motor innervation to the skin and skeletal muscles of the back? (Module 12.6C)
A) lateral ramus
B) rami communicantes
C) anterior ramus
D) posterior ramus
E) medial ramus

D) posterior ramus

113

118) Define nerve plexus, and list the major nerve plexuses. (Module 12.7A)
A) A nerve plexus is a pair of spinal nerves serving a single dermatome; cervical, brachial, lumbar, and sacral
B) A nerve plexus is a collection of all the sensory neurons; cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral
C) A nerve plexus is a collection of all the motor neurons; cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral
D) A nerve plexus is a bundle of sympathetic nerve fibers; cervical, thoracic, brachial, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal
E) A nerve plexus is a complex, interwoven network of nerves; cervical, brachial, lumbar, and sacral

E) A nerve plexus is a complex, interwoven network of nerves; cervical, brachial, lumbar, and sacral

114

119) Which spinal nerves are not part of a nerve plexus? (Module 12.7B)
A) T1-T12
B) C1-C2
C) T2-T11 and Co1
D) S1-S5
E) L1-L5

C) T2-T11 and Co1

115

121) When an anesthetic blocks the function of the anterior rami of the cervical spinal nerves, which areas of the body will be affected?
A) skin and muscles of the lateral surface of the forearm
B) skin and muscles of the arm and forearm
C) skin and muscles of the back of the neck and of the shoulders
D) skin over anteromedial thigh and portions of external genitalia
E) muscles of the face

C) skin and muscles of the back of the neck and of the shoulders

116

122) Describe the brachial plexus.
A) The brachial plexus is a network of nerves formed by branches of spinal nerve segments C5-T1.
B) The brachial plexus is a network of nerves formed by branches of spinal nerve segments C1-C7.
C) The brachial plexus is a network of nerves formed by branches of spinal nerve segments T1-T12.
D) The brachial plexus is a network of nerves formed by branches of spinal nerve segments L1-L5.
E) The brachial plexus is a network of nerves formed by branches of spinal nerve segments S5-Co1.

A) The brachial plexus is a network of nerves formed by branches of spinal nerve segments C5-T1.

117

123) Define a nerve plexus trunk and cord. (Module 12.9B)
A) A nerve plexus trunk is a large bundle of axons from several spinal nerves; a nerve plexus cord is a smaller branch of nerves that originates at a trunk.
B) A nerve plexus trunk is a small bundle of axons from several spinal nerves; a nerve plexus cord is a larger branch of nerves that originates at a trunk.
C) A nerve plexus trunk consists of the posterior rami of each spinal nerve; a nerve plexus cord is a division of each trunk.
D) A nerve plexus trunk is a small division of a nerve plexus cord; a nerve plexus cord is a larger branch from the posterior rami of spinal nerves.
E) A nerve plexus trunk consists of the posterior rami of spinal nerves; a nerve plexus cord consists of the anterior rami of spinal nerves.

A) A nerve plexus trunk is a large bundle of axons from several spinal nerves; a nerve plexus cord is a smaller branch of nerves that originates at a trunk.

118

124) Describe the lumbar plexus and sacral plexus. (Module 12.10A)
A) The lumbar plexus is a nerve network formed by axons from the anterior rami of spinal nerve segments C1-C5; the sacral plexus is a nerve network formed by axons from the anterior rami of spinal nerve segments C5-T1.
B) The lumbar plexus is a nerve network formed by axons from the anterior rami of spinal nerve segments T12-L4; the sacral plexus is a nerve network formed by axons from the anterior rami of spinal nerve segments S4-Co1.
C) The lumbar plexus is a nerve network formed by axons from the anterior rami of spinal nerve segments C1-C5; the sacral plexus is a nerve network formed by axons from the anterior rami of spinal nerve segments S4-Co1.
D) The lumbar plexus is a nerve network formed by axons from the anterior rami of spinal nerve segments L1-L5; the sacral plexus is a nerve network formed by axons from the anterior rami of spinal nerve segments L4-S5.
E) The lumbar plexus is a nerve network formed by axons from the anterior rami of spinal nerve segments T12-L4; the sacral plexus is a nerve network formed by axons from the anterior rami of spinal nerve segments L4-S4.

E) The lumbar plexus is a nerve network formed by axons from the anterior rami of spinal nerve segments T12-L4; the sacral plexus is a nerve network formed by axons from the anterior rami of spinal nerve segments L4-S4.

119

125) List the major nerves of the sacral plexus. (Module 12.10B)
A) iliohypogastric, ilio-inguinal, and genitofemoral nerves
B) lateral femoral cutaneous, femoral, and obturator nerves
C) superior and inferior gluteal, posterior femoral cutaneous, sciatic, and pudendal nerves
D) tibial, femoral, sural, saphenous, and fibular nerves
E) long thoracic, thoracodorsal, saphenous, genitofemoral, and obturator nerves

C) superior and inferior gluteal, posterior femoral cutaneous, sciatic, and pudendal nerves

120

127) Differentiate between divergent and convergent neural circuits. (Module 12.11A)
A) In divergent circuits, information spreads from one neuron to several neurons. In convergent circuits, several neurons synapse with one postsynaptic neuron.
B) In divergent circuits, several neurons synapse with one postsynaptic neuron. In convergent circuits, information spreads from one neuron to several neurons.
C) In divergent circuits, information from one neuron is spread through one hemisphere of the cerebrum. In convergent circuits, information from one neuron is spread through both cerebral hemispheres.

A) In divergent circuits, information spreads from one neuron to several neurons. In convergent circuits, several neurons synapse with one postsynaptic neuron.

121

128) Which kind of neural circuit processes information in a stepwise fashion, one neuron to another? (Module 12.11B)
A) divergent
B) serial processing
C) convergent
D) parallel processing
E) reverberation

C) convergent

122

129) Where does the simplest processing occur? (Module 12.11C)
A) cerebrum
B) cerebellum
C) brainstem
D) PNS and the spinal cord
E) corpus callosum

D) PNS and the spinal cord

123

130) What are common characteristics of reflexes?
A) All reflexes involve contraction of skeletal muscle to pull away from a stimulus to minimize damage.
B) All reflexes involve processing in the spinal cord.
C) All reflexes involve processing in the brain.
D) All reflexes involve only one synapse so they are rapid responses to stimuli.
E) All reflexes are rapid, unconscious patterned responses to stimuli that restore or maintain homeostasis.

E) All reflexes are rapid, unconscious patterned responses to stimuli that restore or maintain homeostasis.

124

131) List the components of a reflex arc.
A) sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron
B) sensory neuron and motor neuron
C) receptor, sensory neuron, motor neuron, effector, and sometimes interneurons may be involved
D) receptor, motor neuron, effector, and sometimes interneurons may be involved
E) receptor, interneuron, effector

C) receptor, sensory neuron, motor neuron, effector, and sometimes interneurons may be involved

125

132) Define stretch reflex. (Module 12.13A)
A) A stretch reflex is an example of a withdrawal reflex that contracts the flexor muscles of a limb in response to a painful stimulus.
B) A stretch reflex is a polysynaptic reflex that activates extensor muscles in the opposite leg or arm when a flexor reflex is activated.
C) A stretch reflex is a monosynaptic reflex that activates extensor muscles in the opposite leg or arm when a flexor reflex is activated.
D) A stretch reflex is a monosynaptic reflex that provides regulation of skeletal muscle length.
E) A stretch reflex is a polysynaptic reflex that provides regulation of skeletal muscle length.

D) A stretch reflex is a monosynaptic reflex that provides regulation of skeletal muscle length.

126

133) In the patellar reflex, identify the response observed and the effectors involved.
(Module 12.13B)
A) arm flexion and the effector is the biceps brachii
B) arm extension and the effector is the triceps brachii
C) leg flexion and the effectors are the hamstrings
D) leg flexion and the effectors are the quadriceps femoris
E) leg extension and the effectors are the quadriceps femoris

E) leg extension and the effectors are the quadriceps femoris

127

134) In the patellar reflex, how does stimulation of the muscle spindle by gamma motor neurons affect sensitivity and reaction time? (Module 12.13C)
A) The muscle spindles become more sensitive and the reflex response occurs more quickly.
B) The muscle spindles become more sensitive and the reflex response occurs more slowly.
C) The muscle spindles become less sensitive and the reflex response occurs more quickly.
D) The muscle spindles become less sensitive and the reflex response occurs more slowly.
E) The muscle spindles become more sensitive but the reflex response time does not change.

A) The muscle spindles become more sensitive and the reflex response occurs more quickly.