antibiotics

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Pharmacology
Chapter 26
updated 10 days ago by Akosua_Ruby
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1

structure of penicillin

beta-lactam ring structure

2

action of penicillins

  • inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis
  • could be bacteriostatic and bactericidal
3

MOA of amoxicillin

Inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis

4

use of amoxicillin

treat bacterial infection

5

S/E of amoxicillin

  • hypersensitivity
  • tongue discoloration, sores
  • stomatitis
6

inadvertent IV administration of PCN G benzathine can lead to what

cardiopulmonary arrest and death

7

cephalosporins

  • ceftriaxone MOA

inhibit bacterial cell-wall synthesis

  • bactericidal
8

use of ceftriaxone

  • respiratory
  • urinary
  • skin
  • bone
  • joint
  • genital infections
9

SE of ceftriaxone. what is the caution we need to know?

  • nephrotoxicity
  • elevated hepatic enzyme
  • be careful if someone is allergic to penicillin
10

what will happen if a patient takes a cephalosporin with alcohol? what about kidney function?

  • may cause disulfiram-like reaction
  • uricosurics: decrease cephalosporin excretion
11

macrolides

  • MOA of azithromycin and use
  • inhibits steps of protein synthesis
  • STIs, conjunctivitis, otitis media
12

SE of azithromycin

  • tinnitus
  • ototoxicity
  • nephrotoxicity
  • hepatotoxicity
13

taking warfarin, theophylline and carbamazepine with macrolides can cause

increases the effects of medication

14

azithromycin levels may be reduced by what drug

antacids

15

glycopeptides

  • vancomycin MOA and use
  • inhibits cell wall synthesis
  • substitute for PCN allergy, MRSA, bacteremia, septicemia, endocarditis
16

how is vancomycin administered

parenteral, or oral to treat bacterial colitis

17

SE of vancomycin

  • red neck or red man syndrome
  • disulfiram-like reaction to alcohol
18

red neck or red man syndrome characteristics

  • occurs when IV too rapid
  • severe hypotension
  • red blotching of face, neck, chest and extremities.
19

what to do if patient has a red man syndrome to vancomycin

you slow the infusion, call the provider

20

tetracyclines

  • MOA of doxycycline

inhibit protein synthesis by penetrating microbial cells

21

what is doxycycline used for

STIs, urinary and respiratory infections

22

SE of doxycycline

  • photosensitivity
  • diplopia
  • discoloration of permanent teeth (blue)
23

food interactions of doxycycline

  • milk products
  • antacids
  • oral contraceptives
  • penicillins
24

MOA of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and use

  • inhibit bacterial synthesis of protein and folic acid
  • UTI
25

SE of trimethoprim-sulfamethaxazole

  • crystalluria
  • renal failure
  • blood dyscrasias
26

aminoglycosides

  • MOA of gentamicin sulfate and use
  • inhibit protein synthesis
  • bacteremia, septicemia, endocarditis
27

SE of gentamicin sulfate

  • ototoxicity
  • nephrotoxicity
  • neurotoxocity
  • tinnitus
28

drug interaction of gentamicin

increased action of oral anticoagulants

29

fluoroquinolones

  • levofloxacin MOA and use
  • interfere with enzyme DNA gyrase
  • gynecologic, urinary and respiratory tract infection
30

SE of levofloxacin

  • tendinitis
  • tendon rupture
31

Action of nitroimidazoles and use

  • disrupts DNA and protein syntheses in bacteria and protozoa
  • treats C-diff associated diarrhea
32

SE of nitroimidazoles

  • dry mouth, dysgeusia
  • tongue/tooth discoloration
  • disulfiram-like reaction
  • SJS
33

MOA of isoniazid and route of administration

  • inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis
  • IM and oral
34

SE of isoniazid

  • psychotic behavior
  • tremors, seizures
  • thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis
35

MOA of rifampin

kills mycobacteria by inhibiting synthesis of RNA

36

route of administration of rifampin

oral administration for good absorption. IV reaches peak serum concentration immediately

37

use of rifampin

TB

38

SE of rifampin

  • red-orange discoloration of urine, tears, sweat, and other body fluids
39

you do a peak and trough levels for what medications?

aminoglycosides and vancomycin to manage toxicity

40

fluoroquinolone are mainly metabolized in what organ

the kidneys