autonomic nervous system

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created 2 months ago by Akosua_Ruby
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Pharmacology
Chapters 15, 16
updated 2 months ago by Akosua_Ruby
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1

the autonomic nervous system is divided into....

  • sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight)
  • parasympathetic (rest and digest)
2

the primary neurotransmitters in ANS are

  • norepinephrine
  • acetylcholine
3

the sympathetic nervous system

  • activated under stress conditions
  • HR and BP increases, blood is shunted to skeletal muscles
  • liver produces excess glucose for energy
  • bronchi dilate to allow more air into lungs
  • pupils dilate
4

parasympathetic nervous system

  • activated under non-stressful conditions
  • digestive processes are promoted
  • HR and BP decline
  • bronchi constrict
5

the primary neurotransmitters in ANS are

  • norepinephrine (sympathetic)
  • acetylcholine (parasympathetic)
6

norepinephrine

  • primarily in the sympathetic nervous system
  • belongs to catecholamines (epinephrine and dopamine)
7

receptors of norepinephrine are called......

adrenergic receptors

  • can be alpha and beta receptors
8

nerves that release acetylcholine are called

cholinergic nerves

9

how many types of acetylcholine receptors are there?

2 types

  • nicotinic: affects skeletal muscles. stimulates smooth muscle and gland secretion
  • muscarinic: stimulates smooth muscle and slow the HR
10

drugs that stimulate the sympathetic nervous system is known as....

sympathomimetics or adrenergic agents. they mimic the SNS

11

drugs that inhibit the sympathetic nervous system is known as...

adrenergic antagonists/adrenergic-blocking agents/sympatholytics. they block the SNS

12

drugs that stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system are known as....

parasympathomimetics or cholinergic agents. they mimic the PNS

13

drugs that inhibit the parasympathetic nervous system are known as....

anticholinergics, cholinergic-blocking agents, parasympatholytics, muscarinic blockers

14

norepinephrine (adrenergic) alpha 1 location and response

  • located in all sympathetic target organs except heart
  • constriction of blood vessels, dilation of pupil
15

alpha 2 location and response

  • presynaptic adrenergic nerve terminals
  • inhibition of release of norepinephrine
16

beta 1 location and response

  • heart and kidneys
  • increase HR and force contraction, release renin
17

beta 2 location and response

  • all sympathetic target organs except heart
  • inhibition of smooth muscle
18

an enzyme that acts on the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, breaking it into choline and acetate

acetylcholinesterase

19

anticholinesterase

indirect-acting cholinergic agents that decrease the inactivation of acetylcholine in the synapse by acetylcholinesterase

20

antimuscarinic drugs

drugs that interact with muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the brain, secretory glands, heart, and smooth muscle to produce an anticholinergic response

21

dopamine receptor agonist

drug that corrects the neurotransmitter imbalance by increasing levels of dopamine

22

muscarinic receptors

located in cardiovascular, respiratory, GI, GU systems. when activated by Ache, the affected cells may be excited or inhibited in their functions

23

nicotinic receptors

located in motor nerves and skeletal muscle; when activated by Ache, the membrane depolarizes and produces muscle contraction

24

direct-acting cholinergic drugs....

acts like acetylcholine by activating the organ in a similar fashion as Ache

25

indirect-acting cholinergic drugs....

gives acetylcholine more time to get to its receptor site before its broken down