Ch 6: Skeletal System
What are the Five Primary Functions of the Skeletal System?
Support; Storage of Minerals (calcium) and Lipids (yellow marrow); Blood Cell Production (red marrow); Protection; Leverage (force of motion)
____________ bones are small, irregular bones found between the flat bones of the skull. Their borders are like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle.
Spinal vertebrae, pelvic bones are examples of ___________________.
Have complex shapes with
short, flat, notched, or ridged surfaces.
_____________ are boxlike in appearance. Examples include
carpal bones (wrists) and tarsal bones (ankles).
____________ are thin with parallel surfaces found in the skull, sternum, ribs, and scapulae.
_____________ are relatively long and slender. They are
located in the arm and forearm, thigh and leg, palms, soles, fingers, and toes.
_________________ are usually small, round, and flat. They develop inside tendons and are most often encountered near joints at the knee, the hands, and the feet.
___________ is a projection or bump on a bone.
__________ is an extension of a bone that forms an angle with the rest of the structure.
_____________ is a chamber within a bone, normally filled with air
_____________ is a rounded passageway for blood vessels and/or nerves.
__________ is a deep furrow, cleft, or slit.
___________ passage or channel, especially the opening
of a canal
________ is a duct or channel.
__________________ is dense, supportive connective tissue that contains specialized cells and produces solid matrix of calcium salt deposits around collagen fibers.
Bone (Osseous) Tissue
_______________ form pathways for blood vessels and exchange nutrients and wastes.
________________ covers outer surfaces of bones and consists of outer fibrous and inner cellular layers.
Two-thirds of bone matrix is ______________________.
calcium phosphate, Ca3(PO4)2
One-third of bone matrix is ______________________.
protein fibers (collagen)
_____________ make up only 2 percent of bone mass.
Osteocytes, Osteoblasts, Osteoprogenitor cells, and Osteoclasts are types of _____________.
_____________ are mature bone cells that maintain the bone matrix and live in lacunae. Are between layers (lamellae) of matrix and connect by cytoplasmic extensions through canaliculi in lamellae. Do not divide
The functions of ________________ is to maintain protein and mineral content of matrix; and To help repair damaged bone
_________________ are immature bone cell that secretes osteoid, the organic component of bone matrix
_____________________ are mesenchymal stem cells that divide to produce osteoblasts. They are located in endosteum, the inner cellular layer of periosteum and assist in fracture repair
______________ is a stem cell whose divisions produce osteoblasts
_____________ are a multinucleate cell that secretes acids and enzymes to dissolve bone matrix
Osteocytes are arranged in _____________________ around a central canal containing blood vessels
________________ perpendicular to the central canal and carry blood vessels into bone and marrow.
___________________ are lamellae wrapped around the long bone
and binds osteons together
In which of the following does bone replace existing cartilage?
Which of the following allows a bone to increase in diameter or width?
Giant multinucleated cells involved in the process of osteolysis are __________.
Unlike compact bone, spongy bone (also called cancellous bone) resembles a network of bony struts separated by spaces that are normally filled with __________.
During intramembranous ossification, the developing bone grows outward from the ossification center in small struts called __________.
Osteolysis is an important process in the regulation of __________.
calcium and phosphate concentrations in body fluids
In the structure of Spongy Bone, the matrix forms an open network of trabeculae. The space between trabeculae is filled with __________________.
red bone marrow
Spongy Bone does not have _________________.
______________ have no blood vessels
In some bones, spongy bone holds yellow bone marrow
It Is yellow because it stores ________.
The femur transfers weight from hip joint to knee joint causing _____________ on the lateral side of the shaft and ______________ on the medial side.
_________________ actively deposit bone matrix.
_________________ recycle calcium salts in surrounding matrix.
_______________ derived from phagocytic monocytes of blood
_______________ mesenchymal cells that divide to form others
_______________ a large rough projection.
__________ is a narrow connection between the epiphysis and the diaphysis
_________ is a shallow depression
____________ is a smooth rounded articular surface.
Isolates bone from surrounding tissues; Provides a route for circulatory and nervous supply; Participates in bone growth and repair are functions of the _________________.
The __________________ is an incomplete cellular layer containing osteoblasts, osteogenic cells, and osteoclasts.
________________________________ ossifies bones that originate as hyaline cartilage. Most bones originate as hyaline cartilage