Ch 6: Skeletal System

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1

What are the Five Primary Functions of the Skeletal System?

Support; Storage of Minerals (calcium) and Lipids (yellow marrow); Blood Cell Production (red marrow); Protection; Leverage (force of motion)

2

____________ bones are small, irregular bones found between the flat bones of the skull. Their borders are like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle.

Sutural

3

Spinal vertebrae, pelvic bones are examples of ___________________. Have complex shapes with
short, flat, notched, or ridged surfaces.

Irregular Bones

4

_____________ are boxlike in appearance. Examples include the
carpal bones (wrists) and tarsal bones (ankles).

Short bones

5

____________ are thin with parallel surfaces found in the skull, sternum, ribs, and scapulae.

Flat Bones

6

_____________ are relatively long and slender. They are
located in the arm and forearm, thigh and leg, palms, soles, fingers, and toes.

Long bones

7

_________________ are usually small, round, and flat. They develop inside tendons and are most often encountered near joints at the knee, the hands, and the feet.

Sesamoid bones

8

___________ is a projection or bump on a bone.

Process

9

__________ is an extension of a bone that forms an angle with the rest of the structure.

Ramus

10

_____________ is a chamber within a bone, normally filled with air

Sinus

11

_____________ is a rounded passageway for blood vessels and/or nerves.

Foramen

12

__________ is a deep furrow, cleft, or slit.

Fissure

13

___________ passage or channel, especially the opening
of a canal

Meatus

14

________ is a duct or channel.

Canal

15

__________________ is dense, supportive connective tissue that contains specialized cells and produces solid matrix of calcium salt deposits around collagen fibers.

Bone (Osseous) Tissue

16

_______________ form pathways for blood vessels and exchange nutrients and wastes.

Canaliculi

17

________________ covers outer surfaces of bones and consists of outer fibrous and inner cellular layers.

Periosteum

18

Two-thirds of bone matrix is ______________________.

calcium phosphate, Ca3(PO4)2

19

One-third of bone matrix is ______________________.

protein fibers (collagen)

20

_____________ make up only 2 percent of bone mass.

Bone Cells

21

Osteocytes, Osteoblasts, Osteoprogenitor cells, and Osteoclasts are types of _____________.

bone cells

22

_____________ are mature bone cells that maintain the bone matrix and live in lacunae. Are between layers (lamellae) of matrix and connect by cytoplasmic extensions through canaliculi in lamellae. Do not divide

Osteocytes

23

The functions of ________________ is to maintain protein and mineral content of matrix; and To help repair damaged bone

Osteocytes

24

_________________ are immature bone cell that secretes osteoid, the organic component of bone matrix

Osteoblast

25

_____________________ are mesenchymal stem cells that divide to produce osteoblasts. They are located in endosteum, the inner cellular layer of periosteum and assist in fracture repair

Osteoprogenitor Cells

26

______________ is a stem cell whose divisions produce osteoblasts

Osteogenic cell

27

_____________ are a multinucleate cell that secretes acids and enzymes to dissolve bone matrix

Osteoclast

28

Osteocytes are arranged in _____________________ around a central canal containing blood vessels

concentric lamellae

29

________________ perpendicular to the central canal and carry blood vessels into bone and marrow.

Perforating canals

30

___________________ are lamellae wrapped around the long bone
and binds osteons together

Circumferential lamellae

31

In which of the following does bone replace existing cartilage?

endochondral ossification

32

Which of the following allows a bone to increase in diameter or width?

appositional growth

33

Giant multinucleated cells involved in the process of osteolysis are __________.

osteoclasts

34

Unlike compact bone, spongy bone (also called cancellous bone) resembles a network of bony struts separated by spaces that are normally filled with __________.

bone marrow

35

During intramembranous ossification, the developing bone grows outward from the ossification center in small struts called __________.

spicules

36

Osteolysis is an important process in the regulation of __________.

calcium and phosphate concentrations in body fluids

37

In the structure of Spongy Bone, the matrix forms an open network of trabeculae. The space between trabeculae is filled with __________________.

red bone marrow

38

Spongy Bone does not have _________________.

osteons

39

______________ have no blood vessels

Trabeculae

40

In some bones, spongy bone holds yellow bone marrow
It Is yellow because it stores ________.

fat

41

The femur transfers weight from hip joint to knee joint causing _____________ on the lateral side of the shaft and ______________ on the medial side.

tension, compression

42

_________________ actively deposit bone matrix.

Osteoblast

43

_________________ recycle calcium salts in surrounding matrix.

Osteocytes

44

_______________ derived from phagocytic monocytes of blood

Osteoclast

45

_______________ mesenchymal cells that divide to form others

Osteoprogenitor cells

46

_______________ a large rough projection.

Trochanter

47

__________ is a narrow connection between the epiphysis and the diaphysis

Neck

48

_________ is a shallow depression

Fossa

49

____________ is a smooth rounded articular surface.

condyle

50

Isolates bone from surrounding tissues; Provides a route for circulatory and nervous supply; Participates in bone growth and repair are functions of the _________________.

periosteum

51

The __________________ is an incomplete cellular layer containing osteoblasts, osteogenic cells, and osteoclasts.

endosteum

52

________________________________ ossifies bones that originate as hyaline cartilage. Most bones originate as hyaline cartilage

Endochondral Ossification