Ch 5: Skin

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 3 months ago by jessjess2601
14 views
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

The _________________ is the largest system of the body
-Sixteen percent of body weight

Integument

2

The integument is made up of two parts ________________ and ___________________.

Cutaneous membrane (skin)
Accessory structures

3

_________________ originate in the dermis and extend through the epidermis to skin surface. Includes Hair, Nails, and Multicellular exocrine glands

Accessory Structures

4

Functions of ___________ are Protection of underlying tissues and organs; Excretion of salts, water, and organic wastes (glands); Maintenance of body temperature (insulation and evaporation); Production of melanin

Skin

5

Functions of _________:
Production of keratin
Synthesis of vitamin D3
Storage of lipids
Detection of touch, pressure, pain, and temperature

Skin

6

_______________________ has sensory receptors that detect touch, pressure, pain, vibration,
and temperature. Blood 
vessels assist in thermoregulation.

Reticular Layer

7

The ________________ is avascular stratified squamous epithelium. Nutrients and oxygen diffuse from capillaries in the dermis

Epidermis

8

__________________ Contain large amounts of keratin and
Are the most abundant cells in the epidermis

Keratinocytes

9

_________________ is keratinocytes produce keratohyalin and
keratin; Keratin fibers develop as cells become
thinner and flatter; Gradually the plasma membranes thicken,
the organelles disintegrate, and the cells die

Stratum granulosum

10

Stratum Basale is attached to basement membrane by _______________________.

hemidesmosomes

11

Stratum Basale forms epidermal ridges which are the basis of _______________.

fingerprints

12

______________ are tiny mounds that increase the area of basement membrane and strengthen attachment between epidermis and dermis

Dermal papillae

13

Stratum Basale has many basal cells, or ___________________.

germinative cells

14

Specialized Cells of Stratum Basale are ______________ and _________________.

merkel cells and melanocytes

15

_____________ found in hairless skin and responds to touch (trigger nervous system)

Merkel cells

16

____________________ contain the pigment melanin and are scattered throughout stratum basale

Melanocytes

17

_________________ — the “spiny layer” produced by division of stratum basale; Eight to ten layers of keratinocytes bound by desmosomes; Cells shrink until cytoskeletons stick out (spiny)
Continue to divide, increasing thickness of epithelium
Contain dendritic (Langerhans) cells, active in immune response

Stratum Spinosum

18

___________________ is the “grainy layer” that stops dividing, starts producing: Keratin and Keratohyalin

Stratum Granulosum

19

______________ is a tough, fibrous protein that makes up hair and nails

Keratin

20

______________ are dense granules that Cross-link keratin fibers

Keratohyalin

21

Cells of ______________________ produce protein fibers, dehydrate and die, create tightly interlocked layer of keratin surrounded by keratohyalin

Stratum Granulosum

22

_________________ is the “clear layer” and found only in thick skin. It covers the stratum granulosum

Stratum Lucidum

23

_______________ is the “horn layer” that is exposed surface of skin; 15 to 30 layers of keratinized cells; Water resistant; Shed and replaced every two weeks

Stratum Corneum

24

_________________ is the formation of a layer of dead, protective cells filled with keratin; Occurs on all exposed skin surfaces except eyes. Skin life cycle: It takes 7 to 10 days for a cell to move from stratum basale to stratum corneum

Keratinization

25

__________________ interstitial fluid lost by evaporation through the stratum corneum

Insensible perspiration

26

______________ results from immersion in hypertonic solution (e.g., seawater [osmosis])

Dehydration

27

______________ results from immersion in hypotonic solution (e.g., freshwater [osmosis]) Causes swelling of epithelial cells, evident on the palms and soles

Hydration

28

Skin Color Is Influenced by Two Pigments: ____________ and ______________ and Blood circulation (red blood cells)

Carotene and Melanin

29

_______________ is orange-yellow pigment that is found in orange vegetables and accumulates in epidermal cells and fatty tissues of the dermis. It can be converted to vitamin A.

Carotene

30

___________ is yellow-brown or black pigment produced by melanocytes in stratum basale. Stored in transport vesicles (melanosomes) and transferred to keratinocytes

Melanin

31

________________ produce and store
 melanin

Melanocytes

32

Skin color depends on ___________ production, not number of melanocytes

melanin

33

Blood vessels _______ from heat, skin reddens.
Blood flow decreases, skin pales

dilate

34

____________ is bluish skin tint caused by severe reduction in blood flow or oxygenation

Cyanosis

35

Pituitary tumor is excess _______.

MSH

36

Addison’s disease is disease of the pituitary gland that
Skin _______________.

darkening

37

__________ is loss of melanocytes and loss of color

Vitiligo

38

Liver and kidneys convert vitamin D3 into _____________ which
Aids absorption of calcium and phosphorus

calcitriol

39

_____________________ is produced by glands (salivary and duodenum)

Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)

40

Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is used in laboratories to grow __________________.

skin grafts

41

Functions of _______:
Promotes division of germinative cells
Accelerates keratin production
Stimulates epidermal repair
Stimulates glandular secretion

EGF

42

The ________________ consists of areolar tissue; Contains smaller capillaries, lymphatics, and sensory neurons; and has dermal papillae projecting between epidermal ridges

Papillary Layer

43

The __________________ consists of dense irregular connective tissue; contains larger blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerve fibers; Contains collagen and elastic fibers; Contains connective tissue proper

Reticular Layer

44

________________ an inflammation of the papillary layer; Caused by infection, radiation, mechanical irritation, or chemicals (e.g., poison ivy); characterized by itch or pain

Dermatitis

45

Another name for the eponychium is ______________.

cuticle

46

__________________ are very strong, resist stretching but bend easily and provide flexibility

Collagen fibers

47

_________________ permit stretching and then recoil to original length and limit the flexibility of collagen fibers to prevent damage to tissue

Elastic fibers

48

_________________ is a network of arteries along the reticular layer

Cutaneous plexus

49

______________ is a capillary network from small arteries in papillary layer

Papillary plexus

50

_______________ is a capillary return deep to the papillary plexus

Venous plexus

51

______________ is damage to blood vessels resulting in “black-and-blue” bruising

Contusion

52

Functions of ____________:
Protects and insulates
Guards openings against particles and insects
Is sensitive to very light touch

Hair

53

The base of a hair follicle is surrounded by sensory nerves called ___________________.

root hair plexus

54

_________________ lubricate the hair and control bacteria

Sebaceous glands

55

The ______________ produces hair matrix:
A layer of dividing basal cells
Produces hair structure
Pushes hair up and out of skin

hair bulb

56

In the Hair Shaft Structure the _____________ is the central core.

Medulla

57

in the Hair Shaft Structure the ____________ is the surface layer.

Cuticle

58

In the Hair Shaft Structure the _____________ is the middle layer.

Cortex

59

Medulla contains ____________ keratin

flexible soft

60

Cortex and cuticle contain _______________ keratin

stiff hard

61

____________ is not growing and is attached to an inactive follicle

Club hair

62

_____________ is soft, fine and covers body surface

Vellus hairs

63

________________ is heavy, pigmented hair on Head, eyebrows, eyelashes and other parts of body after puberty

Terminal hairs

64

_________________ discharge directly onto skin surface

Sebaceous follicles

65

_____________________ are found in armpits, around nipples, and groin and secrete products into hair follicles. They produce sticky, cloudy secretions and break down and cause odors

Apocrine Sweat Glands

66

Apocrine Sweat Glands are surrounded by _________________.
They squeeze apocrine gland secretions onto skin surface in response to hormonal or nervous signal.

myoepithelial cells

67

_____________________ are widely distributed on body surface, especially on palms and soles. They are coiled, tubular glands
that discharge directly onto skin surface

Merocrine (Eccrine) Sweat Glands

68

____________ sweat glands
 discharge a watery fluid 
onto the surface of the 
skin.

Merocrine

69

__________________ glands produce cerumen (earwax) that protect the eardrum.

Ceruminous

70

Autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls ______________ and ___________ sweat glands that work simultaneously over entire body.

sebaceous and apocrine

71

_____________ sweat glands are controlled independently and sweating occurs locally.

Merocrine

72

Nail production occurs in a deep epidermal fold near the bone called the ____________

nail root

73

Nail body the visible portion of the nail covers the ____________.

nail bed

74

______________ is the pale crescent at the base of the nail

Lunula

75

Skin beneath the distal free edge of the nail is the __________________.

hyponychium (onyx = nail)

76

________________ is the cuticle.

Eponychium

77

____________________ feels pressure or vibrations in the skin.

Lamellated (pacinian) 
corpuscle

78

Basal cell carcinoma begins in the ______________— a type of cell within the skin that produces new skin cells as old ones die off.

basal cells

79

_______________ is the layer that are eight to ten layers of keratinocytes bound by desmosomes. Contain dendritic (Langerhans) cells, active in immune response.

Stratum spinosum

80

The ________________ layer is a thinner and flatter where the cells start to die.

stratum granulosum

81

The thickest layer of epidermis is the __________________.

stratum corneum

82

_____________ is caused by a deficiency in calcium and vitamin D.

Rickets

83

______________ is when there is excess MSH (Melanocyte-stimulating hormone) which causes the skin to turn dark.

Pituitary tumor

84

_________________ causes you to turn darker without sunlight.

      • A disease of the pituitary gland

Addison’s disease