AP Practice Chapter 15

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1

An explanation of aggression in terms of instinct would have the most difficulty accounting for:

A)unexpected and unprovoked outbursts of aggression.
B)wide cultural variations in aggressiveness.
C)aggression that is accompanied by anger and hostility.
D)the use of nuclear weapons to kill millions of unseen victims.

B)wide cultural variations in aggressiveness.

2

The presence of observers improves a person's performance on ________ tasks and hinders a person's performance on ________ tasks.

A)unenjoyable; enjoyable
B)poorly learned; well-learned
C)physical; mental
D)verbal; mathematical
E)easy; difficult

E)easy; difficult

3

In which of the following groups is social loafing least likely?

A)a highway crew responsible for filling potholes in streets and expressways
B)girl scouts who must gather wood for a campfire
C)factory workers who are each paid on the basis of the number of bicycles each assembles individually
D)a game show audience instructed to applaud when the host appears on stage
E)high school students working on a group project for which they will all receive the same grade

C)factory workers who are each paid on the basis of the number of bicycles each assembles individually

4

Blindfolded subjects were observed to clap louder when they thought they were clapping alone than when they thought they were clapping with others. This best illustrates:

A)the bystander effect.
B)the mere exposure effect.
C)social loafing.
D)group polarization.
E)the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

C)social loafing.

5

The text indicates that the clusters of teenage suicides that occasionally occur in some communities may be the result of:
A)suggestibility.
B)the bystander effect.
C)groupthink.
D)deindividuation.
E)social facilitation.

A)suggestibility.

6

The country of Danasia increased the size of its military force because its leaders inappropriately anticipated that their rival, the country of Wallonia, would do the same. The Wallonians subsequently felt it was necessary to respond to the Danasian military buildup with a military expansion of their own. The Wallonian response best illustrates the danger of:

A)social facilitation.
B)the mere exposure effect.
C)deindividuation.
D)self-fulfilling prophecies.
E)the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

D)self-fulfilling prophecies.

7

High rates of violence are most common among those who experience minimal levels of:

A)cognitive dissonance.
B)deindividuation.
C)social facilitation.
D)father care.
E)group polarization.

D)father care.

8

Diego has become increasingly involved in violent fights at school because this gains him the attention and respect of many classmates. This most clearly suggests that his aggression is a(n):

A)reaction to frustration.
B)instinctive behavior.
C)learned response.
D)product of deindividuation.
E)result of group polarization.

C)learned response.

9

The concept of a superordinate goal is best illustrated by:

A)the intent of a college freshman to enter medical school and eventually become a physician.
B)the efforts of management and labor to produce a fuel-efficient automobile that will outsell any car on the market.
C)the desire of a social worker to do volunteer work in the inner city in order to improve race relations.
D)a college president's desire to give both faculty and students two extra days of spring vacation.

B)the efforts of management and labor to produce a fuel-efficient automobile that will outsell any car on the market.

10

Research on the biology of aggression has clearly demonstrated that:

A)human aggression is an unlearned instinct.
B)there is no physiological basis for aggression in humans.
C)animals can be bred for aggressiveness.
D)neural influences contribute to aggressive behavior by males but not by females.

C)animals can be bred for aggressiveness.

11

Social facilitation is most likely to occur in the performance of ________ tasks.

A)challenging
B)unenjoyable
C)novel
D)simple

D)simple

12

Groupthink can be prevented by a leader who:

A)is directive and makes his or her own position clear from the start.
B)invites outside experts to critique a group's developing plans.
C)tries to maintain high morale among group members.
D)emphasizes the importance of the issue under discussion.

B)invites outside experts to critique a group's developing plans.

13

The mere exposure effect most directly contributes to the positive relationship between ________ and liking.

A)similarity
B)physical arousal
C)physical attractiveness
D)self-disclosure
E)proximity

E)proximity

14

On which of the following tasks would the presence of observers be least likely to lead to better and faster performance?

A)raking leaves
B)washing dishes
C)bicycle racing
D)reciting the alphabet
E)solving a crossword puzzle

E)solving a crossword puzzle

15

Group polarization refers to:

A)the lack of critical thinking that results from a strong desire for harmony within a group.
B)a split within a group produced by striking differences of opinion among group members.
C)the tendency of individuals to exert more effort when working as part of a group.
D)the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through group discussion.
E)the failure to give aid in an emergency situation observed by many onlookers.

D)the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through group discussion.

16

After the Greenway family accepted their neighbor's invitation to Thanksgiving dinner, Mrs. Greenway felt obligated to invite the neighbors to Christmas dinner. Mrs. Greenway's sense of obligation most likely resulted from:

A)the ingroup bias.
B)the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
C)the reciprocity norm.
D)the fundamental attribution error.
E)the mere exposure effect.

C)the reciprocity norm.

17

When Armen first heard the hit song “Back to Basics,” he wasn't at all sure he liked it. The more often he heard it played, however, the more he enjoyed it. Armen's reaction illustrates:

A)the bystander effect.
B)social facilitation.
C)companionate love.
D)the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
E)the mere exposure effect.

E)the mere exposure effect.

18

Cross-cultural research on gender relations indicates that:

A)the majority of the world's children without basic schooling are boys.
B)in most countries men and women share equally in the duties of child-rearing.
C)people perceive their fathers as more intelligent than their mothers despite gender equality in intelligence scores.
D)there is little evidence that females are more likely to be aborted than males.

C)people perceive their fathers as more intelligent than their mothers despite gender equality in intelligence scores.

19

Six-year-old Ezra believes that boys are better than girls, while 5-year-old Arlette believes that girls are better than boys. Their beliefs most clearly illustrate:

A)the reciprocity norm.
B)deindividuation.
C)ingroup bias.
D)the mere exposure effect.
E)the fundamental attribution error.

C)ingroup bias.

20

Evidence that people exhibit heightened levels of prejudice when they are economically frustrated offers support for:

A)cognitive dissonance theory.
B)the just-world phenomenon.
C)social exchange theory.
D)the scapegoat theory.
E)attribution theory.

D)the scapegoat theory.

21

Marilyn judges her professor's strict class attendance policy to be an indication of his overcontrolling personality rather than a necessity dictated by the limited number of class sessions in a course that meets only once a week. Her judgment best illustrates:

A)the mere exposure effect.
B)group polarization.
C)deindividuation.
D)the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
E)the fundamental attribution error.

E)the fundamental attribution error.

22

Bart complied with his friends' request to join them in smashing decorative pumpkins early one Halloween evening. Later that night he was surprised by his own failure to resist their pressures to throw eggs at passing police cars. Bart's experience best illustrates the:

A)bystander effect.
B)foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
C)fundamental attribution error.
D)frustration-aggression principle.
E)just-world phenomenon.

B)foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

23

Cognitive dissonance theory is most helpful for understanding the impact of:

A)frustration on aggression.
B)groupthink on social conflict.
C)deindividuation on the bystander effect.
D)team membership on social loafing.
E)role-playing on attitude change.

E)role-playing on attitude change.

24

In making wedding preparations, Jason conforms to the expectations of his future bride's family simply to win their favor. His behavior illustrates the importance of:

A)social facilitation.
B)normative social influence.
C)mirrorimage perceptions.
D)the mere exposure effect.
E)the bystander effect.

B)normative social influence.

25

The level of obedience in the Milgram experiments was highest when the “teacher” was ________ the experimenter and ________ the “learner.”

A)close to; close to
B)far from; far from
C)close to; far from
D)far from; close to

C)close to; far from

26

Bonnie pedals an exercise bike at her health club much faster when other patrons happen to be working out on nearby equipment. This best illustrates:

A)the bystander effect.
B)the mere exposure effect.
C)the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
D)social facilitation.
E)group polarization.

D)social facilitation.

27

When a group of high school students who were all prejudiced discussed racial issues, their attitudes became even more prejudiced. This best illustrates:

A)group polarization.
B)the bystander effect.
C)social facilitation.
D)the mere exposure effect.
E)social loafing.

A)group polarization.

28

Kelly, a Republican, and Carlos, a Democrat, both believe that members of their own political party are more fairminded and trustworthy than members of other parties. Their beliefs best illustrate:

A)the social responsibility norm.
B)the just-world phenomenon.
C)the two-factor theory.
D)deindividuation.
E)ingroup bias.

E)ingroup bias.

29

When visiting the Bergin-Belsen concentration camp shortly after World War II, one German civilian was said to have remarked, “What terrible criminals these prisoners must have been to receive such treatment.” This reaction is best explained in terms of:

A)the mere exposure effect.
B)social facilitation.
C)the just-world phenomenon.
D)the social responsibility norm.
E)deindividuation.

C)the just-world phenomenon.

30

After extensive exposure to X-rated sexual films, men are subsequently ________ accepting of women's sexual submission to men and _______ likely to perceive a woman's friendliness as sexual interest.

A)more; less
B)less; more
C)more; more
D)less; less

C)more; more

31

Max fails to recycle his glass, metal, and plastic garbage because he thinks it's personally inconvenient and likely to have minimal impact on the city's already overflowing landfills. His reaction best illustrates the dynamics of:

A)the mere exposure effect.
B)the just-world phenomenon.
C)the fundamental attribution error.
D)a social trap.
E)social facilitation.

D)a social trap.

32

When buying groceries, many shoppers prefer certain products simply because they have a familiar brand name. This preference best illustrates the importance of:

A)social traps.
B)the mere exposure effect.
C)mirror-image perceptions.
D)the reciprocity norm.
E)deindividuation.

B)the mere exposure effect.

33

Which theory best explains why the excitement that lingers after a frightening event can facilitate passionate love?

A)social exchange theory
B)cognitive dissonance theory
C)the two-factor theory
D)the scapegoat theory
E)equity theory

D)the scapegoat theory

34

Mr. Hughes heard what sounded like cries for help from a swimmer located 30 yards from the ocean shoreline. He continued walking along the beach, however, because he figured that one of the many swimmers in the vicinity would provide help if it was needed. His reaction best illustrates the dynamics involved in:

A)the fundamental attribution error.
B)group polarization.
C)the bystander effect.
D)the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
E)the mere exposure effect.

C)the bystander effect.

35

The hostilities between two racial subgroups of a riverfront community were dramatically reduced when the threat of their river flooding its banks required that they work together to save their town. This best illustrates the impact of:

A)the mere exposure effect.
B)groupthink.
C)superordinate goals.
D)deindividuation.
E)the bystander effect.

C)superordinate goals.

36

The fundamental attribution error involves:

A)failing to give aid in an emergency situation involving many onlookers.
B)becoming more extreme in one's individual opinions following group discussion.
C)performing a complex task more poorly when in the presence of others.
D)underestimating situational constraints on another's behavior.
E)losing self-restraint in group situations that foster anonymity.

D)underestimating situational constraints on another's behavior.

37

Professor Stewart wrote a very positive letter of recommendation for a student despite his having doubts about her competence. Which theory best explains why he subsequently began to develop more favorable attitudes about the student's abilities?

A)cognitive dissonance theory
B)social exchange theory
C)two-factor theory
D)scapegoat theory
E)equity theory

A)cognitive dissonance theory

38

Research participants who worked alongside someone who rubbed his or her face or shook his or her foot were observed to do the same thing themselves. This best illustrated:

A)the mere exposure effect.
B)the chameleon effect.
C)social loafing.
D)deindividuation.
E)the bystander effect.

B)the chameleon effect.

39

Using the Asch procedure, studies reveal that conformity to group judgments is least likely when:

A)participants announce their own answers only after the other group members have done so.
B)participants are not observed by other group members when giving their answers.
C)it is very difficult for anyone to make correct perceptual judgments.
D)judgments are made in a group that has more than three people.

B)participants are not observed by other group members when giving their answers.

40

In a study of social loafing, blindfolded students were asked to pull on a rope as hard as they could. The students tugged hardest when they thought:

A)three others were pulling with them.
B)three others were pulling against them.
C)no others were pulling with them.
D)no one was monitoring how hard they pulled.

C)no others were pulling with them.

41

Although Frieda is typically very reserved, as part of a huge rock concert crowd she lost her inhibitions and behaved in a very sexually provocative way. Frieda's unusual behavior is best understood in terms of:

A)the bystander effect.
B)social facilitation.
C)deindividuation.
D)the mere exposure effect.
E)the fundamental attribution error.

C)deindividuation.

42

Groupthink is fueled by a desire for:

A)conflict.
B)self-disclosure.
C)harmony.
D)passionate love.
E)cognitive dissonance.

C)harmony.

43

Following Germany's defeat in World War I and the economic chaos that followed, many Germans experienced increasing levels of prejudice toward Jews. This surge of hostility can best be explained in terms of the

A)mere exposure effect.
B)reciprocity norm.
C)just-world phenomenon.
D)scapegoat theory.
E)bystander effect.

D)scapegoat theory.

44

Shortly after Alex learned that he had failed to make the high school football team, he vandalized the team's locker room and broke several classroom windows. His behavior is best explained in terms of:

A)group polarization.
B)the mere exposure effect.
C)social loafing.
D)deindividuation.
E)the frustration-aggression principle.

E)the frustration-aggression principle.

45

Although the leaders of two enemy nations admit to a buildup of their own military forces, each sees the other country's actions as unreasonable and motivated by evil intentions. This situation best illustrates:

A)deindividuation.
B)the mere exposure effect.
C)the just-world phenomenon.
D)mirror-image perceptions.
E)social facilitation.

D)mirror-image perceptions.

46

When asked how much they like various letters of the alphabet, people tend to prefer those that happen to be found in their own names. This best illustrates the impact of:

A)deindividuation.
B)social facilitation.
C)the mere
D)the fundamental attribution error.
E)the foot-in-the door phenomenon.

C)the mere

47

Compared to less attractive people, those who are physically attractive are least likely to be perceived as very:

A)honest.
B)healthy.
C)socially skilled.
D)happy.

A)honest.

48

Although Natalie receives somewhat greater rewards from her marriage than does her husband, both are satisfied with the relationship because they each benefit in proportion to what they put into it. This best illustrates the significance of:

A)equity.
B)deindividuation.
C)the bystander effect.
D)social facilitation.
E)the mere exposure effect.

A)equity.

49

The neighbors' failure to call the police in time to save the life of Kitty Genovese best illustrated:

A)group polarization.
B)the frustration-aggression principle.
C)the mere exposure effect.
D)the just-world phenomenon.
E)the bystander effect.

E)the bystander effect.

50

After Mrs. Chanski and her children had helped themselves to free samples of the cookies being promoted in the grocery store, she felt obligated to buy some, even though they seemed unreasonably expensive. Her reaction best illustrates the significance of:

A)social facilitation.
B)the reciprocity norm.
C)the bystander effect.
D)the just-world phenomenon.
E)deindividuation.

B)the reciprocity norm.