Geol. 1403/Cook quiz 9

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GEOL
Chapter 9
Deformation & Mountain Building
updated 2 weeks ago by Devalon_N_Burk
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geology, science
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1

The Black Hills of South Dakota are a good example of a ____.

dome

2

Large circular downwarped structures are called ____.

basins

3

What combination should favor folding rather than faulting?

high temperature and high confining pressure

4

Tensional forces normally cause what?

normal faults

5

The ____ in California is the boundary between the North American and Pacificplates.

San Andreas strike-slip fault

6

A(n) ____ is a thick accumalation of sediments and small tectonic blocks formed of material scraped off a descending lithosperic plate.

accretionary-wedge complex

7

In a normal fault ____.

the hanging wall block above an inclined fault plane moves downward relative to the other block

8

A transform fault is ____.

a strike-slip fault that forms the boundary between tectonic plates

9

Brittle deformation would be favored over plastic deformation in which condition?

cooler temperatures

10

A thrust fault is best described as ____.

a low angle, reverse fault

11

A horst is ____.

an uplifted block bounded by two normal faults

12

A syncline is ____.

a fold in which the strata dip toward the axis

13

A ____ fault has little or no verticle movements of the two blocks.

strike-slip

14

In a ____ fault, the hanging wall block moves up with respect to the footwall block.

reverse

15

In thrust faulting ____.

the crust is shortened and thickened

16

What stress situation results in folding of flat-lying sedimentary strata?

horizontally directed compressive stresses

17

A graben is characterized by ____.

a hanging wall block that has moved down between two normal faults

18

The mountains and valleys of the Basin and Range Province of the western U.S. formed in response to ____.

tensional stresses and normal fault movements.

19

The Sierra Nevada, California, and Tenton, Wyoming ranges are examples of ____.

fault blocks uplifted by late Tertiary to Quaternary normal faulting

20

A good example of a present-day, passive continental margin is the ____.

East coast of North America

21

The ____ are geologically old mountain range folded and deformed during the Paleozoic.

Appalachians in the Eastern United States

22

The term ____ refers specifically to geologic mountain building.

orogenesis

23

What is an example of an isostatic movement?

uplift of areas recently covered by thick continental ice sheets

24

Folded limestones that occur high in the Himalayas were originally deposited as sediments in a ____.

marine basin between India and Eurasia

25

The concept that rocks of the crust and upper mantle are floating in gravitational balance is known as ____.

osostacy