analgesics

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Pharmacology
Chapter 25
updated 4 months ago by Akosua_Ruby
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1

pain threshold

the level of stimulus needed to create a painful sensation

2

pain tolerance

amount of pain a person can endure without affecting daily living

3

the MU opioid receptor gene

controls the number of MU of U-receptors present. a person with a large U receptor gene have a high pain threshold and reduced pain sensitivity

4

classifications of pain

  • acute: less than 3 months
  • chronic: more than 3 months. gradual and prolonged
  • nociceptors: sensory receptor for pain. mechanical, thermal, chemical. located in peripheral tissues
  • neuropathic: nerve pain. burning, tingling, etc.
5

nonopioid analgesics

  • less potent than opioid
  • usually OTC
  • used for mild to moderate pain
6

acetaminophen

  • MOA
  • USE
  • ADV. REACTION
  • CONTRAINDICATION
  • ANTIDOTE
  • inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, inhibition of hypothalamic heat-regulator center
  • decrease pain and fever
  • elevated liver enzymes, hepatotoxicity, renal failure
  • hepatic disease
  • acetylcysteine
7

opioid analgesics

  • prescribed for moderate to severe pain
  • act mainly on CNS
  • suppress pain, respiratory drive, and cough center in medulla
8

morphine

  • MOA
  • USE
  • ADV. REACTION
  • ANTAGONIST
  • depression of CNS, depression of pain impulses by binding with opiate receptors in CNS
  • moderate to severe pain
  • hypotension, seizures, respiratory depression
  • naxolone
9

combination analgesics

  • moderate to severe pain
  • NSAID and opioid
  • ex: ibuprofen and hydrocodone or acetaminophen and codeine
  • helps decrease drug dependency
10

patient-controlled analgesia

  • self administered pain relief
  • set to pre-determined safety limits
  • lockout mechanism used
11

transdermal opioid analgesic

  • continuous, around-the-clock pain control
  • NOT useful for actue pain
  • fentanyl commonly used.
  • do not put heat pack over transdermal opioid
12

analgesia in patients with substance use disorder

  • complete thorough pain assessment
  • opioid agonist-antagonist medications may precipitate withdrawal syndrome
13

nalbuphine (opioid agonist-antagonist)

  • MOA
  • USE
  • ADV. REACTION
  • inhibits pain impulses transmitted in the CNS by binding to opiate receptors and increasing pain threshold
  • bradycardia, tachycardia, hypotension hypertension, dyspnea