endocrine hormones

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Pharmacology
Chapter 46
updated 5 days ago by Akosua_Ruby
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1

the anterior pituitary gland stimulates

GH, TSH, ACTH, Gonadotropins, prolactin

2

growth hormone deficiency (somatropin)

  • identical to human GH. it encourages growth.
  • given subcute. notify HCP if child is not growing after weeks/months of administration
  • make sure epiphyseal plate is still open. administration with closed epiphyseal plate can lead to acromegaly
  • do not take corticosteroids with somatropin.
3

side effects of somatropin

muscle pain, weakness, peripheral edema, fluctuation of glucose levels. check glucose levels

4

growth hormone excess (somatotropin)

  • inhibiting hormone. affects body's tissue and bones. tries to slow down excess GH.
5

posterior pituitary stimulates

ADH and oxytocin

6

ADH

hormone that tells body to stop releasing fluid through the kidneys

excess ADH: SIADH

dificient ADH: diabetes insipidus

7

SIADH

  • excess ADH. Can be caused by small carcinoma of lung, medications or stressors.
  • fluid retention, fluid overload, edema, electrolyte imbalances
8

treatment of SIADH

fluid restriction, hypertonic saline, drug therapy

9

diabetes insipidus

  • ADH deficiency. head injury and brain tumors resulting from trauma can cause DI.
  • large amounts of water excreted by kidneys.
  • severe fluid volume deficit and electrolyte imbalances
10

the thyroid gland

  • produce and secrete 3 hormones: T3,T4, and calcitonin
  • majority of thyroid hormone are synthesized as T4 then converted to T3
  • need iodine to synthesize T3 and T4
11

hyperthyroidism

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  • fast metabolism. excessive T3 and T4
  • graves disease
12

grave's disease

  • caused by hyperfunction of thyroid gland.
  • palpitations, tachycardia, hyperhidrosis, heat intolerance, nervousness, irritability, exophthalmos, weight loss.
13

treatment of graves disease

may be treated with surgical removal of thyroid gland, radioactive therapy or drugs

14

hypothyroidism

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  • characterized by slow metabolism
  • primary cause: thyroid gland disorder
  • secondary cause: lack of TSH secretion
  • tertiary cause: lack of TRH
15

myxedema

  • severe hypothyroidism in adults
  • lethargy, apathy, memory impairment, emotional changes, slow speech, deep coarse voice, edema
16

cretinism

  • hypothyroidism in children
  • delayed mental and physical growth
17

parathyroid

  • secretes PTH and regulates serum calcium levels
  • decrease in calcium stimulates release of PTH
18

calcitonin decreases calcium levles by

promoting osteoclast activity and calcium excretion by kidneys and intestines

19

hypoparathyroidism

  • dysregulation of calcium in the body
  • damage to parathyroid is common cause
  • hypomagnesemia can also cause PTH deficiency
20

calcitrol

  • drug used for hypoparathyroidism
  • it promotes calcium absorption from the GI tract and promote secretion of calcium from bone to blood stream
21

side effects of calcitrol

early signs of hypercalcemia, fatigue, weakness, somnolence, cephalgia, N/V, diarrhea, cramps

22

hyper parathyroidism

  • excess secretion of PTH sends message to body that it needs more circulating calcium
  • calcium is pulled from bones, which increase risk of osteoporosis
23

biphosphonates (alendronate)

  • blocks osteoclast activity inhibiting mineralization of bones
  • used for hyperparathyroidism to help prevent osteoporosis
24

side effects of alendronate

can cause severe esophagitis, abdominal and musculoskeletal pain, GI upset, hypotension, fever.

25

addison disease

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  • deficient of adrenal gland activity.
  • decrease serum sodium, increased serum potassium
26

cushing disease

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  • increased release from adrenal glands
  • main cause is tumor formation in adrenal glands
27

prednisone

  • addison disease
  • suppress inflammation to help with adrenal function
28

side effects of prednisone

angioedema, cardiac arhythmia, osteoporosis,fractures, tendon rupture