anti diabetics

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 4 months ago by Akosua_Ruby
11 views
book cover
Pharmacology
Chapter 47
updated 4 months ago by Akosua_Ruby
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

MOA of metformin

decreasing hepatic production of glucose from stored glycogen

2

S/s of type 1 DM

polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, fatigue

3

type 2 Diabetes

  • insulin resistance
  • predominantly an insulin secretory defect
  • oral diabetic agents and insulin can be used for treatment
4

insulin

  • released from islet of langerhans
  • used to control diabetes, lower blood glucose and potassium in some cases
  • MOA is to improve glucose use
5

side effects of insulin

sweats, chills, flashing, lethargy, weakness, tachycardia, hypoglycemia, hypokalemia, DKA

6

sulfonylureas (glipizide)

  • chemically similar to sulfa antibiotics. targets beta cells that are still functional
  • most commonly prescribed sulfonylurea for type 2
  • do not give to patients with sulfonylurea allergy
7

MOA and onset of glipizide

  • directly stimulate the beta cells to secrete insulin
  • onset within 90 minutes
8

biguanides (metformin)

  • prevents rise in glucose. DOES NOT CAUSE SUBSTANTIAL DROP IN GLUCOSE
  • may increase insulin receptor sensitivity
  • not recommended for pts with renal impairment
9

MOA of metformin

decresing hepatic production of glucose from stored glycogen

10

alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose)

  • does not cause hypoglycemia. it simply delays glucose release which reduces post-prandial hyperglycemia
  • intended for patients who do not achieve results with diet alone
11

MOA of acarbose

inhibits digestive enzymes in the small instestine responsible for the release of glucose from the complex carbs in the diet

12

thiazolidinediones (rosiglitazone)

  • indicated for monotherapy
  • contraindicated in class 3 and 4 heart failure due to dose-related fluid retention
13

MOA of rosiglitazone

decrease insulin resistance and improve blood glucose control

14

meglitinides (repaglinide)

  • similar to the action of sulfonureas
  • contraindicate in liver failure due to decreased liver metabolism rate which can lead to drug accumulation and hypoglycemia
15

MOA of repaglinide

stimulate the beta cells to release insulin

16

incretin modifier (sitagliptin phosphate)

adjunct to treatment with exercise and diet to reduce fasting and post-prandial plasma glucose levels

17

MOA of sitagliptin phosphate

increase level of incretin hormones, which increases insulin secretion and decreases glucagon secretion to reduce glucose production.

18

hyperglycemic drug (glucagon)

  • MOA: increase glucagon
  • use: hypoglycemic episode