A&P2: Exam 1- Endocrine and Blood

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Test over chapter 16 and 17: endocrine and blood respectively
updated 3 months ago by gissromero
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biol 2402
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1

Exocrine Glands

produce non-hormonal substances, such as sweat and saliva and have ducts that carry these substances to a membrane surface

2

Endocrine Glands

DUCTLESS glands: they produce hormones and lack ducts. secretes hormones into blood via extracellular fluid

3

What are the 2 types of hormones?

Amino Acid Based

Steroid

4

What are amino acid based hormones?

these are the MAJORITY: water soluble peptide (hydrophilic polar)

5

what are steroid hormones?

made from cholesterol; lipid soluble (hydrophobic, non polar)

6

What are the 3 types of stimuli that cause hormone release?

Humoral Stimuli

Neural Stimuli

Hormonal Stimuli

7

What are humoral stimuli?

Secrete their hormones in direct response to changing blood levels of certain critical ions and nutrients

8

What are neutral stimuli?

Nerve fibers stimulate glands

9

What are Hormonal stimuli?

release their hormones in response to hormones produced by other endocrine glands

10

What are the 2 parts of the pituitary gland?

Anterior and Posterior

11

Anterior Pitituary

directly connected to hypothalamus by infundibulum hypophyseal protein veins

12

What are the hormones involved with the anterior pituitary?

Growth Hormone (GH), Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Prolactin Hormone (PRL)

13

Growth Hormone (GH)

Stimulates bone and muscle growth; stimulated by GHRH

14

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

Stimulates thyroid gland to release thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) (T4 is more common)

Iodine is needed for this

15

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

Stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids and androgens

16

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Stimulates ovarian follicles and sperm production

17

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

Stimulates release of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone

18

Prolactin (PRL)

stimulates lactation

19

Posterior Pituitary

Hormones produced by hypothalamus are transferred to posterior pituitary by hypophyseal tract

20

What are the posterior pituitary hormones?

Oxytocin and Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

21

Oxytocin

stimulates uterine contractions; initiates labor

POSITIVE FEEDBACK

22

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

stimulates kidney tubule cells to reabsorb water (causes decreased uterine output)

vasopressin

23

Gonadotropins

FSH and LH; they regulate the function of gonads

24

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

produced by the hypothalamus prompts gonadotropin release

25

Thyroid Hormones

location: on the trachea

the body's major metabolic hormone

T3 and T4 regulate iodine production

26

Parathyroid Glands

produce parathyroid hormone

primary regulators of blood calcium levels

enhances reabsorption of CA+ by the kidneys

27

Adrenal Glands

location: perched on top of the kidneys

produce hormones involved in electrolyte balance and the stress response

28

Adrenal Cortex

-synthesizes steroid hormones called corticosteroids

-Glucocorticoids: influence metabolism; helps body resist stress

-Mineralcorticoids: regulate electrolytes; Stimulates Na+ reabsorption and causes K+ secretion

29

Pineal Gland

location: brain;3rd ventricle of the diencephalon

secretes melatonin which is involved in the sleep cycle; moods

30

Pancreas

location: along the duodenum, behind the stomach

-Hormones produced in Islets of Langerhans (aka Pancreatic Islets)

Contain alpha and beta cells

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Alpha Cells ( α-cells)

Glucagon arises from α-cells (increase blood glucose cells)

32

Beta Cells (β cells)

Insulin arises from beta cells (lowers blood glucose levels)

33

Gonads

produce steroid sex hormones

34

Ovaries (Female Gonads)

Estrogen (E2): production and preparation of ova/eggs

Progesterone (P4): involved in the menstrual cycle+pregnancy

35

Testes (Male gonads)

Testosterone: production of sperm

36

What are the 3 functions of blood?

Transport, Regulation and Protection

37

Transport

Deliver O2 to the body, get rid of metabolic waste from cells, transport hormones

38

Regulation

Maintaining appropriate body temperature, maintain normal pH in body tissues, maintaining adequate fluid volume in the circulatory system

39

Protection

Preventing blood loss, preventing infection

40

Blood is

the only fluid connective tissue

41

Hematocrit

clinical measures of the amt of RBC's & can therefore be used to indicate perfusion capacity & estimate the viscosity of blood

42

Blood accounts for approx. how much of the body weight?

8%

43

What are formed elements?

Erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets

44

Buffy Coat

a thin, whitish layers separating erythrocytes and plasma after being spun in a centrifuge. contains leukocytes and platelets

- <1 % of whole blood

45

Plasma

It is mostly water (90%) plasma contains nutrients, hormones, gases, electrolytes, wastes and proteins

-Albumin: accounts for 60% of plasma proteins; acts as a carrier to shuttle certain molecules through circulation, is an important blood buffer and is the major blood protein circulating to the plasma osmotic pressure

- 55% of whole blood

46

Erythrocytes

Red Blood Cells

do not contain nucleus

only transport oxygen

-hemoglobin

erythropoiesis

47

Hemapoesis/Hematopoesis

All formed elements arise from stem cell hematocyst

hematopoiesis occurs in the blood marrow

48

Myeloid stem cell

erythrocyte production (erythropoiesis) begins with the hematopoietic stem cell descendant called myeloid stem cell

49

Erythropoetin (EPO)

a glycoprotein stimulates the formation of erythrocytes

triggers:

reduced number of RBC's due to hemorrhage or excessive RBC destruction

insufficient hemoglobin per RBC (as in iron deficient)

reduced availability of oxygen

50

Leukocytes

White Blood Cells

on average there are 4800-10800 WBC's/ul of blood

crucial to our defense against disease

51

There are 2 kinds of leukocyte groups

Granulocytes and Agranulocytes

52

What are the Granulocytes?

Basophils, Eosinophils, Neutrophils (BEN)

53

Basophils

rarest WBC

release histamine (vasodilator) ; contain heparin (an anticoagulant)

increase with chicken pox, sinusitis, diabetes

appearance: bilobed nucleus, large black/purplish cytoplasmic granules

54

Eosinophil

increase with parasitic infections , destroy large parasites, phagocytize antigen AB complexes, complex role in allergies and asthma

appearance: bilobed uncles with red cytoplasmic granules

55

Neutrophils

the most numerous wbc; twice as large as erythrocytes; the most variation

aggressively antibacterial; phagocytize bacteria

appearance: multilobed nucleus; inconspicuous cytoplasmic granules

56

What are the Agranulocytes

Lymphocytes and Monocytes

57

Lymphocytes

T Lymphocytes: function in the immune response by acting directing against virus infected and tumor cells

B Lymphocytes: give rise to plasma cells, which produce antibodies

-mount immune resins by direct cell attack or via antibodies

appearance: nucleus takes up most of the cell

58

Monocyte

the largest leukocyte

triggered by viral infections &inflammation; leave our bloodstream and transform into macrophages; phagocytize pathogens

appearance: u or kidney shaped nucleus

59

All blood cells arise from which type of stem cell?

The PPSC (pluripotent stem cell)

60

Life Spans

Granulocytes: a few hours to 5 days

Monocytes: months to several years

Lymphocytes: provide decades of immunity

Platelets: circulate freely for 5-6 days and 40% are stored in the spleen

61

Megakaryocytes

platelets are cell fragments of megakaryocytes produced by shearing of proplatelets

live in bone marrow, adjacent to blood sinusoids send long tendrils of cytoplasm (pro platelets) into blood sinusoids

62

Normal platelet count

130,000-400,000 platelets/ uL

63

Hemostasis

cessation of bleeding; stops potentially fatal leaks

64

what are the 3 hemostatic mechanisms (all involve platelets)

1) Vascular Spasm (vasoconstriction)

2)Platelet Plug Formation

3)Blood Clotting (coagulation)

65

Vascular Spasm

-MOST immediate protection vs blood loss

-platelets release serotonin (a vasocontrictor)

-pain receptors directly innervate blood vessels to induce constriction

EFFECT: broken vessels rapidly constricts

66

Platelet Plug Formation

- in uninjured, intact vessels

endothelium is smooth, coated w/ prostacyclin (platelet repellant)

-in broken/injured vessels

collagen fibers exposed=rough surface & circulating platelets make contact---->grow pseudopods (stick to damaged cell walls, pull them together)

1.Seratonin- vasoconstriction

2.ADP- attracts & degranulates more platelets

3.Thromboxane- A2; aggregation, degranulation, and vasoconstriction

67

Coagulation

Thrombus is a normal clot

final most effective defense vs bleeding

conversion of plasma protein fibrinogen-->insoluble fibrin threads-->form framework a clot procoagulants-->clotting factors produced by liver& present in plasma

Activate 1 factor--> activate next one--> form reaction cascade

68

This cascade is activated by these two pathways

1.Extrinsic Factor: initiated by factors released from damaged tissues

2.Intrinsic Factor: initiated by factors IN blood

69

Platelet Functions

-Secrete vasoconstrictors-->reduce blood loss

-Secrete procoagulants

-Initiate formation of clot-dissolving enzyme

-Secrete growth factors-->stimulate mitosis--> repair blood vessels

70

Fibrinogen-->Fibrin-->Fibrin Polymer

FYI: fibrinogen is made in the liver; always in plasma

71

Completion of Coagulation

-Activation of Factor X

leads to production of prothrombin activator

-Prothrombin Activator

converts prothrombin to thrombin

-Thrombin

converts fibrinogen into fibrin monomers which covalently bind to form fibrin polymer

factor XII cross links fibrin polymer strands

-Positive Feedback

thrombin speeds up formation of prothrombin activator

72

Clotting Disorder

-lack of clotting

73

Hemophilia

hereditary disease chara. by deficiencies of several different types

74

Clotting Disorder

abnormal clotting

75

Thrombosis

abnormal//disordered clotting in an unbroken vessel, occurs most frequently in inactive people

76

Embolus

clot that travels in blood and blocks vessels

77

To prevent initial formation of clots

-natural anti-coagulants: antithrombin or heparin

-prescription anti-coagulants: vitamin K

78

To dissolve clots that have already formed

-tissue plasminogen activator (TPA)

specific in stroke patients

-Streptokinase

enzyme; used to dissolve clots in coronary vessels but not specific- digests all proteins

-hementin: produced by giant amazon leeches

79

Fibronolysis

dissolution of a clot

80

How to prevent inappropriate clotting

Platelet Repulsion, Thrombin Dilution, Natural Coagulants

81

1)Platelet Repulsion

prostacyclin- prevents platelets from adhering (sticking)

82

2)Thrombin Dilution

as blood flows, volume & rate of flow change thrombin concentration

FYI: during shock, slow <3 rate--> decreases flow-->possible clot formation

83

3)Natural Anti-Coagulants

Heparin: secreted by basophils &mast cells, interfered with formation of prothrombin activator

Antithrombin: from liver; deactivates thrombin before it acts on fibrinogen

84

RH factors in pregnant women

say a pregnant rH - women is carrying a rH+ baby. the first pregnancy results in a healthy baby, but because of the bleeding during the placenta detachment, the mother may become sensitized by her baby rH+ antigens that pass into her bloodstream

85

RhoGAM

a serum containing anti-Rh antibodies. by agglutinating the Rh factor, it blocks the mother's immune response and prevents her sensitization

86

Erythroblastosis fetalis (hemolytic disease of the newborn)

if the mother is not treated after her first pregnancy, and becomes pregnant again with an Rh+ baby, her antibodies will cross through the baby's placenta and destroy the baby's RBC producing erythroblastosis fetalis

baby becomes anemic and hypoxic

87

Agglutinogens

RBC antigens that produce agglutination

88

agglutinins

preformed antibodies//plasma proteins

89

ABO blood groups

based on presence or absence of 2 agglutinogens, type A or type B

90

What is the difference between endocrine and exocrine?

an endocrine gland secretes its products and hormones into the blood and the exocrine glands secrete its products and enzymes into ducts that lead to the target tissue.

91

What is the hormone that controls hunger?

Ghrelin ( my stomach is ghrelin)