Anatomy & Physiology- Ch: 3
All body cells except sex cells are ________________.
Soma = body
Essential for movement of chromosomes during cell division; organization of mirotubules in cytoskeleton are functions of the ________________.
Centrosome and Centrioles
________________ contains two centrioles at
right angles; each centriole is composed
of 9 microtubule triplets in a 9 + 0 array
_______________ are Proteins organized in fine filaments or slender tubes
Strength and support; movement of cellular structures
and materials are functions of the __________________.
________________ is a Lipid bilayer containing phospholipids,
steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates.
Isolation; protection; sensitivity; support; controls entry and exit of materials are functions of the ______________________.
_____________ distributes materials by diffusion.
_____________ are extensions of the plasma
membrane containing microfilaments.
Increase surface area to facilitate absorption of extracellular materials are functions of the ______________.
________ are long extensions of the plasma membrane containing microtubules.
- Small hairlike extensions
There are two types of cilia :___________ and _______________ .
primary and motile
A primary cilium acts as a sensor. Motile cilia move materials over cell surfaces are functions of ________.
_________ are hollow cylinders of proteolytic enzymes with regulatory proteins at their ends
Breakdown and recycling of damaged or abnormal intracellular proteins are functions of _________________.
__________ are RNA + proteins; fixed ribosomes bound to rough endoplasmic reticulum; free ribosomes scattered in cytoplasm
Ribosomes function is ____________________.
______________ are stacks of flattened membranes
(cisternae) containing chambers
Storage, alteration, and packaging of secretory products and lysosomal enzymes are functions of the _________________.
__________ have a double membrane, with inner membrane folds (cristae) enclosing important metabolic enzymes
____________ produce 95% of the ATP required by the cell
__________________ is a network of membranous channels extending throughout the cytoplasm
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Synthesis of secretory products; intracellular storage and transport; detoxification of drugs or toxins are functions of the __________________________.
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
______________ modifies and packages newly synthesized proteins
__________________ synthesizes lipids and carbohydrates
____________ are vesicles containing
Catabolism of fats and other organic compounds; neutralization of toxic compounds generated in the process are functions of the __________________.
________________ are vesicles containing digestive enzymes
Intracellular removal of damaged organelles or pathogens are functions of the _________________
___________ is nucleoplasm containing nucleotides, enzymes, nucleoproteins, and chromatin; surrounded by a double membrane, the nuclear envelope
Control of metabolism; storage and processing of genetic information; control of protein synthesis are functions of the __________.
The process of protein synthesis is called __________.
Cytoskeleton, microvilli, centrioles, cilia, ribosomes, and proteasomes are __________________________.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, and mitochondria are ________________________.
____________ - thin filaments composed of the protein actin
- Provide additional mechanical strength
- Interact with proteins for consistency
- Pair with thick filaments of myosin for muscle movement
_________________ -mid-sized between microfilaments and thick filaments
- Durable (collagen)
- Strengthen cell and maintain shape
- Stabilize organelles
- Stabilize cell position
_______________ — large, hollow tubes of tubulin protein
- Attach to centrosome
- Strengthen cell and anchor organelles
- Change cell shape
- Move vesicles within cell (kinesin and dynein)
- Form spindle apparatus
____________ bound to inner or outer surface of the membrane
_____________ is all materials inside the cell and outside the nucleus
Ribosomes build ______________ in protein synthesis
Free ribosomes in cytoplasm manufacture __________ for cell
__________________ attached to ER manufacture proteins for secretion
Proteasomes contain enzymes (proteases)
that disassemble damaged proteins for _____________.
High K, low Na, low Ca is _______________
High Na, low k, high Ca is _______________.
Glycolipids attach to the lipids on the cell as a ______________.
______________ are as thick as plasma membrane and Within the membrane
______________ increase surface area for absorption and attach to cytoskeleton.
_______ are small hairlike extensions and move fluids across the cell surface
Centrioles form _______________ during cell division
A __________ consists of nine microtubule triplets (known as a 9 + 0 array)
______________ are storage chambers within membranes
Functions of ________________________:
- Synthesis of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids
- Storage of synthesized molecules and materials
- Transport of materials within the ER
- Detoxification of drugs or toxins
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
_______________ are enzyme-containing vesicles that break down fatty acids, organic compounds; produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and replicate by division
Mitochondria use oxygen to break down food and produce ATP this is called ___________________.
aerobic metabolism (cellular respiration)
What is the functional unit of heredity?
As the cell life cycle proceeds, cyclin levels climb, causing the maturation promoting factor (MPF) to appear in the cytoplasm, initiating the process of __________.
The four stages of mitosis in correct sequence are __________.
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Hemolysis occurs when a red blood cell is placed in __________.
a hypotonic solution
A solution that contains a solute concentration greater than that in a cell is said to be __________.
____________ is when carrier proteins transport molecules too large to fit through channel proteins (glucose, amino acids); Molecule binds to receptor site on carrier protein; Protein changes shape, molecules pass through; Receptor site is specific to certain molecules
__________________ is important for ions and water soluble molecules
Channel Mediated Diffusion
Types of Passive diffusion:
Simple, Facilitated (Channel & Carrier), Osmosis
Lipid soluble compounds are _____________________.
Alcohol, Fatty Acid, Steroids
A _______________ solution would treat brain edema due to injuries.
A _____________ is when two substances go through a channel in the same direction.
An _______________ is when one substances enters a channel while another one is leaving a cell
The NA+ -K+ ATPase Pump is an example of ___________________
The effect of diffusion in body fluids is that it tends to __________.
eliminate local concentration gradients
__________________ have a 9 + 0 arrangement of microtubules;
are found in all animal cells capable of undergoing cell division;
are found in pairs, except during cell division
_________________ involves moving glucose and amino acids
___________ is when Na+ concentration gradient drives glucose transport and then ATP energy pumps Na+ back out
Secondary active transport