Anatomy & Physiology- Ch: 3

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1

All body cells except sex cells are ________________.

Soma = body

Somatic Cells

2

Essential for movement of chromosomes during cell division; organization of mirotubules in cytoskeleton are functions of the ________________.

Centrosome and Centrioles

3

________________ contains two centrioles at
right angles; each centriole is composed
of 9 microtubule triplets in a 9 + 0 array

Cytoplasm

4

_______________ are Proteins organized in fine filaments or slender tubes

Cytoskeleton

5

Strength and support; movement of cellular structures
and materials are functions of the __________________.

cytoskeleton

6

________________ is a Lipid bilayer containing phospholipids,
steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates.

Plasma Membrane

7

Isolation; protection; sensitivity; support; controls entry and exit of materials are functions of the ______________________.

plasma membrane

8

_____________ distributes 
materials by diffusion.

Cytosol

9

_____________ are extensions of the plasma
membrane containing microfilaments.

Microvilli

10

Increase surface area to facilitate absorption of extracellular materials are functions of the ______________.

microvilli

11

________ are long extensions of the plasma membrane containing microtubules.

    • Small hairlike extensions

Cilia

12

There are two types of cilia :___________ and _______________ .

primary and motile

13

A primary cilium acts as a 
sensor. Motile cilia move
materials over cell surfaces are functions of ________.

cilia

14

_________ are hollow cylinders of proteolytic
enzymes with regulatory
proteins at their ends

Proteasomes

15

Breakdown and recycling of
 damaged or abnormal intracellular
proteins are functions of _________________.

proteasomes

16

__________ are RNA + proteins; fixed ribosomes bound
 to rough endoplasmic reticulum; free
ribosomes scattered
in cytoplasm

Ribosomes

17

Ribosomes function is ____________________.

protein synthesis

18

______________ are stacks of flattened membranes
(cisternae) containing chambers

Golgi apparatus

19

Storage, alteration, and packaging
 of secretory products and
lysosomal enzymes are functions of the _________________.

golgi apparatus

20

__________ have a double membrane, with inner membrane folds (cristae) enclosing important metabolic enzymes

Mitochondria

21

____________ produce 95% of the ATP required by the cell

Mitochondria

22

__________________ is a network of membranous channels extending throughout the cytoplasm

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

23

Synthesis of secretory
 products; intracellular storage
 and transport; detoxification of
 drugs or toxins are functions of the __________________________.

endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

24

______________ modifies and
 packages newly 
synthesized
proteins

Rough ER

25

__________________ synthesizes lipids
 and carbohydrates

Smooth ER

26

____________ are vesicles containing
degradative enzymes

Peroxisomes

27

Catabolism of fats and 
other organic compounds;
neutralization of toxic 
compounds generated in
 the process are functions of the __________________.

peroxisomes

28

________________ are vesicles containing 
digestive enzymes

Lysosomes

29

Intracellular removal
 of damaged organelles
 or pathogens are functions of the _________________

lysosomes

30

___________ is nucleoplasm containing 
nucleotides, enzymes,
nucleoproteins, and
 chromatin; surrounded
 by a double membrane,
the nuclear envelope

Nucleus

31

Control of metabolism;
storage and processing 
of genetic information;
 control of protein
 synthesis are functions of the __________.

nucleus

32

The process of protein synthesis is called __________.

Protein synthesis

33

Cytoskeleton, microvilli, centrioles, cilia, ribosomes, and proteasomes are __________________________.

Nonmembranous organelles

34

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, and mitochondria are ________________________.

Membranous organelles

35

____________ - thin filaments composed of the protein actin

      • Provide additional mechanical strength
      • Interact with proteins for consistency
      • Pair with thick filaments of myosin for muscle movement

Microfilaments

36

_________________ -mid-sized between microfilaments and thick filaments

      • Durable (collagen)
      • Strengthen cell and maintain shape
      • Stabilize organelles
      • Stabilize cell position

Intermediate filaments

37

_______________ — large, hollow tubes of tubulin protein

      • Attach to centrosome
      • Strengthen cell and anchor organelles
      • Change cell shape
      • Move vesicles within cell (kinesin and dynein)
      • Form spindle apparatus

Microtubules

38

____________ bound to inner or outer surface of the membrane

Peripheral proteins

39

_____________ is all materials inside the cell and outside the nucleus

Cytoplasm

40

Ribosomes build ______________ in protein synthesis

polypeptides

41

Free ribosomes in cytoplasm manufacture __________ for cell

proteins

42

__________________ attached to ER manufacture proteins for secretion

Fixed ribosomes

43

Proteasomes contain enzymes (proteases)
that disassemble damaged proteins for _____________.

recycling

44

High K, low Na, low Ca is _______________

inside cell

45

High Na, low k, high Ca is _______________.

outside cell

46

Glycolipids attach to the lipids on the cell as a ______________.

Cell marker

47

______________ are as thick as plasma membrane and Within the membrane

Integral proteins

48

______________ increase surface area for absorption and attach to cytoskeleton.

Microvilli

49

_______ are small hairlike extensions and move fluids across the cell surface

Cilia

50

Centrioles form _______________ during cell division

spindle apparatus

51

A __________ consists of nine microtubule triplets (known as a 9 + 0 array)

centriole

52

______________ are storage chambers within membranes

Cisternae

53

Functions of ________________________:

      1. Synthesis of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids
      2. Storage of synthesized molecules and materials
      3. Transport of materials within the ER
      4. Detoxification of drugs or toxins

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

54

_______________ are enzyme-containing vesicles that break down fatty acids, organic compounds; produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and replicate by division

Peroxisomes

55

Mitochondria use oxygen to break down food and produce ATP this is called ___________________.

aerobic metabolism (cellular respiration)

56

What is the functional unit of heredity?

gene

57

As the cell life cycle proceeds, cyclin levels climb, causing the maturation promoting factor (MPF) to appear in the cytoplasm, initiating the process of __________.

mitosis

58

The four stages of mitosis in correct sequence are __________.

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

59

Hemolysis occurs when a red blood cell is placed in __________.

a hypotonic solution

60

A solution that contains a solute concentration greater than that in a cell is said to be __________.

hypertonic

61

____________ is when carrier proteins transport molecules too large to fit through channel proteins (glucose, amino acids); Molecule binds to receptor site on carrier protein; Protein changes shape, molecules pass through; Receptor site is specific to certain molecules

Facilitated diffusion

62

__________________ is important for ions and water soluble molecules

Channel Mediated Diffusion

63

Types of Passive diffusion:

Simple, Facilitated (Channel & Carrier), Osmosis

64

Lipid soluble compounds are _____________________.

Alcohol, Fatty Acid, Steroids

65

A _______________ solution would treat brain edema due to injuries.

Hypertonic

66

A _____________ is when two substances go through a channel in the same direction.

Synporter

67

An _______________ is when one substances enters a channel while another one is leaving a cell

Antiporter

68

The NA+ -K+ ATPase Pump is an example of ___________________

Primary transport

69

The effect of diffusion in body fluids is that it tends to __________.

eliminate local concentration gradients

70

__________________ have a 9 + 0 arrangement of microtubules;

are found in all animal cells capable of undergoing cell division;

are found in pairs, except during cell division

Centrioles

71

_________________ involves moving glucose and amino acids

Facilitated diffusion

72

___________ is when Na+ concentration gradient drives glucose transport and then ATP energy pumps Na+ back out

Secondary active transport