Social PSYC 3330 CH 2/1

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Social Psychology
Chapters 1, 2
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1

Interjudge Reliability

The level of agreement between two or more people who independently observe and code a set of data; by showing that two or more judges independently come up with the same observations, researchers ensure that the observations are not the subjective, distorted impressions of one individual

2

Internal Validity

Making sure that nothing besides the independent variable can affect the dependent variable; this is accomplished by controlling all extraneous variables and by randomly assigning people to different experimental conditions

3

Psychological Realism

The extent to which the psychological processes triggered in an experiment are similar to psychological processes that occur in everyday life

4

External Validity

The extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other situations and to other people

5

Basic Dilemma of the Social Psychologist

The trade-off between internal and external validity in conducting research; it is very difficult to do one experiment that is both high in internal validity and generalizable to other situations and people

6

Hindsight Bias

the tendency for people to exaggerate, after knowing that something occurred, how much they could have predicted it before it occurred

7

Basic Research
y

Studies that are designed to find the best answer to the question
of why people behave as they do and that are conducted purely for
reasons of intellectual curiosity

8

Applied Research

Studies designed to solve a particular social problem

9

Social Influence

The effect that the words, actions, or mere presence of other people have on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behavior

10

STUDY Why the Name of the Game Matters Liberman, Samuels, & Ross, 2004

when the name of the game was the “Community Game,” players were far more likely to behave cooperatively than when it was called the “Wall Street Game”—regardless of their own cooperative or competitive personality traits. The game’s title conveyed social norms that trumped personality and shaped the players’ behavior.

11

Construal

The way in which people perceive, comprehend, and interpret the social world

12

Social Cognition

How people think about themselves and the social world; more specifically, how people select, interpret, remember, and use social information to make judgments and decisions

13

operational definition

states specifically how the conceptual variable will be manipulated or measured.

14

STUDY Late 1800s: Two experiments Norman Triplett and Max Ringlemann

eg. biking race and tug of war

Competition enhances performance

As group size increases, individual effort decreases