Social PSYC 3330 Ch 5 SELF

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Social Psychology
Chapter 5
updated 4 months ago by spyro625
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1

self-schema

An organized body of knowledge about the self (e.g., attitudes, preferences, traits) that influences what people notice, think, and remember about themselves.

2

Self-Concept

The overall set of beliefs that people have about their personal attributes

3

Independent View of the Self

A way of defining oneself in termsof one’s own internal thoughts ,feelings, and actions and not in terms of the thoughts, feelings, and actions of other people

4

Introspection

The process whereby people look inward and examine their own thoughts, feelings, and motives

5

Self-Awareness Theory

The idea that when people focus their attention on themselves, they evaluate and compare their behavior to their internal standards and values

6

Causal Theories

Theories about the causes of one’s own feelings and behaviors; often we learn such theories from our culture (e.g., “absence makes the heart grow fonder”)

7

Reasons-Generated Attitude change

results from thinking about the reasons for one’s attitudes; people assume that their attitudes match the reasons that are plausible and easy to verbalize

8

Self-Perception Theory

The theory that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states by observing our behavior and the situation in which it occurs

9

Intrinsic Motivation

The desire to engage in an activity because we enjoy it or find it interesting, not because of external rewards or pressures

10

Extrinsic Motivation

The desire to engage in an activity because of external rewards or pressures, not because we enjoy the task or find it interesting

11

Overjustification Effect

The tendency for people to view their behavior as caused by compelling extrinsic reasons, making them underestimate the extent to which it was caused by intrinsic reasons

12

Task-Contingent Rewards

Rewards that are given for performing a task, regardless of how well the task is done

13

Performance-Contingent Rewards

Rewards that are based on how well we perform a task

14

Two-Factor Theory of Emotion

The idea that emotional experience is the result of a twostep self-perception process in which people first experience physiological arousal and then seek an appropriate explanation for it

15

Misattribution of Arousal

The process whereby people make mistaken inferences about what is causing them to feel the way they do

16

Social Comparison Theory

The idea that we learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people

17

Downward Social Comparison:

Comparing ourselves to people who are worse than we are with regard to a particular trait or ability

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Upward Social Comparison

Comparing ourselves to people who are better than we are with regard to a particular trait or ability

19

Social Tuning

The process whereby people adopt another person’s attitudes

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STUDY Sinclair, Lowery, Hardin, & Colangelo, 2005) Social Tuning to a Likable Experimenter

These results show that people tend to automatically adopt the views of people they like, but automatically reject the views of people they do not.

21

Affective Forecasts

People’s predictions about how they will feel in response to a future emotional event

22

Impression Management

The attempt by people to get others to see them as they want to be seen

23

Ingratiation

The process whereby people flatter, praise, and generally try to make themselves likable to another person, often of higher status

24

Self-Handicapping

The strategy whereby people create obstacles and excuses for themselves so that if they do poorly on a task, they can avoid blaming themselves

25

Self-Esteem

Peoples evaluations of their own self-worth—that is, the extent to which they view themselves as good, competent, and decent

26

Terror Management Theory

The theory that holds that self-esteem serves as a buffer, protecting people from terrifying thoughts about their own mortality

27

Socio-gauge theory

self-esteem is a gauge that monitors the extent to which we are accepted or rejected by others, driven by need for acceptance/approval of others

28

STUDY self awareness theory by Csikszentmihalyi and Figurski (1982)

Each time when the beeper went of participants recorded what they were thinking in the moment only 8% were about the self, most of time thinking of personal neg things and wanting to do other things

29

Self-Discrepancy Theory Higgins (1989)

our self-esteem is defined by the match or mismatch between how we see ourselves and how we want to see ourselves (actual -ought-ideal) more of/awareness of stretch creates lower self esteem, especially if something important to us

30

self-serving bias

protects self esteem by thinking overly favourable towards self in way that may not be true and may blame failures on other people or on outside circumstances

31

STUDY The Overjustification Effect (Greene, Sternberg, & Lepper, 1976)

giving students rewards lowered intrinsic desires to play math games when comparing pre and post tests measuring time spent playing with math games