Social PSYC 3330 Ch 3

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Social Psychology
Chapter 3
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1

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

People can inadvertently make their schemas come true by the way they treat other people. People have an expectation, which influences how they act towards the person, which causes that person to act consistently with the persons original expectations, making the expectations come true. This is also a form of auto thinking as it isn't deliberate.

2

Heuristic

Mental shortcuts people use to make judgments quickly and effectively. They are highly functional most of the time but can be inadequate or just misapplied leading to faulty judgments

3

Availability Heuristic

Bases the judgment on the ease with which something can be brought to mind

4

Representative Heuristic

A mental shortcut used to classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case

5

Base rate information

Information about the relative frequency of the members of different categories in the population becomes a rep heuristic if focus on other info that isn't relevant instead (i.e ignoring base rate info)

6

Analytic Thinking

A type of thinking in which people focus on the properties of objects without considering their surrounding context, common in western cultures (seeing the planes)

7

Accessibility

The extent to which schema andconcepts are at the forefront of people’s minds and are therefore likely to be used when making judgments about the social world

8

Controlled thinking

Thinking that is conscious, intentional, voluntary, and effortful.

9

Automatic Thinking

Thinking that is no conscious, unintentional, involuntary, and effortless/ compared to. Auto thinking helps us to understand new situations by relating them to our prior experiences, we categorize.

10

Schemas

are mental structures that organize our knowledge about the social world. These structures influence the information we notice, think about, and remember. They help us fill in gaps in our knowledge of the social world.

11

Priming

the process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema, trait, or concept. Thoughts both have to be accessible and applicable before they will act as primes. It is a good example of auto thinking as it happens quickly, unintentionally and unconsciously.

12

Holistic Thinking Style

A type of thinking in which people focus on the overall context,particularity the ways in which objects relate to each other, common in East Asian cultures (back ground). However everyone can be primed to think one way or the other.

13

Counterfactual Thinking

Mentally changing some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been. They can have a big influence on our reaction to events,e.g. bronze medalist is happier than silver as silver sees themselves as that much closer to the gold, if only I had of...

14

Overconfidence Barrier

The fact that people usually have too much confidence in the accuracy of their judgments

15

STUDY Priming and Accessibility Higgins, Rholes, & Jones, 1977

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Memorizing (positive/negative) words prior to judging something can effect judgement. If memorize positive words will have positive view, vice versa

16

STUDY Schema's Harold Kelley (1950)

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Lecturer gave same lecture to students. Two grps given diff bios (Warm/cold personality) students used schemas to fill in blanks when rating proff. warm grp described as warm, cold grp as cold

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STUDY The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1968

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teachers got told one group of students were bloomers, bloomers performed better and teachers gave more attention and better feedback comparatively

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STUDY Availability and Assertiveness Schwarz et al., 1991

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easier to recall info can sway judgement of less/more assertive if recall 6 assertive acts will rate v. assertive opposed to 12 will rate not assertive cz can't think of all 12 examples

19

STUDY STATS and psyc students Richard Nisbett and his colleagues (1987)

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training in stats and research methods helped psyc student with reasoning

20

STUDY Bless (1990) Motives behind lvl of thought given

People in positive moods tend to rely more on automatic thinking and people in negative moods tend to rely more on controlled thinking.