Biology Ch 1-7

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1

properties of life

order, evolutionary adaption, regulation, energy processing, growth and development, response to environment, reprodduction

2

signs of life

  1. contain nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
  2. composed of cells
  3. reproduce
  4. use energy and raw materials (metabollic)
  5. respond
  6. maintain homeostasis
  7. evolve and have adaptive traits
3

evolution

change of a species over time

4

biology

study of life (not simply listing-posing questions of world and seeking inquiries)

5

Order of size of microorganisms (Largest to smallest)

Eukaryotes > Prokayotes > Viruses > Proteins > Small molecules > Atoms

6

biosphere

all living environments on Earth

7

ecosystem

all living and nonliving things in a particular area

8

community

all organisms in an ecosystem

9

population

all members of a species in a given area

10

organisms

individual living thing

11

organ

specialized body part made of tissues

12

tissues

group of similar cells

13

cell

life's fundament unit of structure and function

14

organelle

structural component of a cell

15

molecule

chemical structure consisting of atoms

16

cause of skin cancer

any factor that can cause a mutation

  • exposure to carcinogenic chemicals
  • ultraviolent radiation
  • virus
  • replication errors during cell division
17

Caucasians are more at risk of skin cancer than any other population because...

less of the protective pigment melanin

18

natural selection occurs due to...

variation, heredity, selective pressure and differential reproductive success

19

folate

essential nutrient for DNA synthesis, broken down by UV

20

Insufficient vitamin D

increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, severe astha in children, cognitive impairment, rickets (bowing of bones)

21

statin

cholesterol blocking drug, given to patients with heart attack

22

melanocytes

produce melanin

23

feomelanin

light pigment

24

eumelanin

dark pigment

25

thalidomide

was thought to cure morning sickness lead to high rate of baby with birth defects- morphigenesis

26

vaccine

inject inactive antigens (presents viral proteins to produce antibodies)

27

chaperonins

interacts with misfolding proteins

28

cell theory

  1. all living things are made of cells
  2. cells come from preexisting cells
  3. cells are the basic structural and functional unit of life
29

magnification =

image size/actual size

30

actual size =

image size * magnification

31

five unifying themes

order, information, energy and matter, interactions, evolution

32

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid-form of genetic information

33

genes

units of inheritance transferred from parents to children

34

gene expression

transcription -> translation -> protein folding

35

genome

entire genetic instructions an organism has

36

proteome

entire set of proteins in a given cell, tissue, or organism

37

producers

convert light energy to food or chemical energy

38

consumers

organisms that feed on other organisms

39

feedback regulation

output or product regulates the very process (negative- response reduces; positive (less common) -response speeds up)

40

evolution

change of a species overtime; organisms on Earth are modified descendants of a common ancestor

41

response of insulin

circulates in the blood through the body;lowers glucose levels on the blood;uptake by body cells; glucose storage in liver cells

42

what type of feedback is the clotting of blood after an injury?

positive feedback (platelets aggregate to stop blood flow)

43

climate change

directional change to global climate lasts 3 decades

44

three domains of life

bacteria, archaea, eukarya

45

types of eukarya

plantae, animalia, fungi, protista

46

natural selection

natural environment selects propagation of certain traits in population

47

inquiry

make and record of observations

48

data

recorded observation

  • qualitative-descriptive
  • quantitative- numerical
49

inductive reasoning

probable conclusion from observations

50

hypothesis

explanation on the basis of an observation

51

experiments

scientific tests under controlled conditions

52

deductive reasoning

general to specific, test hypothesis

53

controlled experiments

compare experimental versus control group

54

variables

feature or quanity that vaies

  • independent (manipulated)
  • dependent (measured)
55

Pasteur experiment

disproved spontaneous generation

56

theory

broader scope than hypothesis

57

technology

device that applies scientific knowledge for some specific purpose

58

model organism

easily grown in a lab

59

atomic number

number of protons in nucleus

60

mass number

protons plus neutrons

61

atomic mass

approx. mass number

62

interaction of energy and chemicals in an ecosystem

energy enters as light and leaves as heat; chemicals are used/recycled

63

matter

anything with a mass that takes up space

64

element

substance that cannot be broken down by chemical reactions

65

essential elements

needed to live a healthy life and reproduce

  • 96% - O,C, H, N;
  • 4% - Ca, P, K, S, Na, Cl, Mg
66

trace elements

required in minute quantities

  • iodine (0.15mg)
  • others - Fe, B, Cr, Co, Cu, F, Mn, Mo, Se, Si, Sn, V, Zn
67

effects of iron defficieny

  • lower amounts of oxygen carried in blood cell
  • fatigue
  • anemia (too few blood cells or abnormal hemoglobin)
68

isotopes

two atoms of element that differ in number of neutrons

69

radioactive isotopes

  • nucleus decays spontaneously giving off particles and energy
  • dating fossils
  • tracing metabolic processes
  • used in medical imaging ex. PET scan with fluorodeoxyglucose
70

half-life

  • rate at which parents isotope decays into daughter isotope
  • approx. 50% of parental decay
71

radiometric dating

measure ratio of different isotopes and how many half-lifes (in years) from original

72

energy

capacity to make change

73

potential energy

energy as a result of location and structure

74

going to a higher energy level

energy is absorbed

75

going to a lower energy level

energy is lost

76

electron shell

energy level

77

chemical properties depend on...

outermost electron shell or valence shell

78

chemical bond

close attraction of atoms

79

orbital

3D space where an electron is found 90% of the time

80

covalent bond

card image

sharing of a pair of ve by two atoms

81

molecule

two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds

82

valence

capacity to bond

83

electonegativity

attraction of particular atom for electrons in a covalent bond

84

nonpolar bond

atoms have same electronegativity (same pull)

85

polar bond

card image

one atom is significantly more electronegative than the other, leading to partial charges

86

ions

charged atoms

87

ionic bonds

cation and anion bonded

88

hydrogen bond

attraction between hydrogen and electronegative atom

89

van der Waals interactions

weak attraction between molecules or parts of molecules as a result of transient partial charges

90

linear shape

two atoms, 180 degree

91

tetrahedron

1s and 3p

92

bent

three atoms with lone pairs ex H2O

93

molecular shape determines...

how biological molecules recognize and respond to one another

94

chemical equilibrium

the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse

95

living systems differ from nonliving systems in that

living systems combine simple elements in unique combinations

96

the unity among all organisms is a result of

the structure and function of DNA

97

reactivity arises from

existence of unpaired electrons in the valence shell

98

sweating has a cooling effect because of water's high

heat of vaporization

99

in an ecosystem, nutrients and energy .

are recycled...flows through

100

which of the following observations and inferences led Charles Darwin to his theory of natural selection as mechanism for evolution?

Darwin synthesized his theory of natural selection from all the listed observations and inferences

101

experimentation is only one part of the process of scientific inquiry, but it is a very importan step because it...

allows rejection of hypotheses

102

what is generally true about essential elements and living organisms?

although all forms of life require iron, other elements are required only by certain species

103

polar molecule

the opposite ends have opposite charges

104

cohesion

  • hydrogen bonds hold water molecules together
  • helps transport water against gravity in plants
105

adhesion

the clinging of one substance to another

106

surface tension

measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid

107

calorie

  • amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1g of H2O by 1 degree Celsius
  • 4.184 J
108

specific heat

amount of heat needed to change temperature

109

when hydrogen bonds form...

heat is released

110

when hydrogen bonds break...

heat is absorbed

111

specific heat of water

1 cal/g/degrees Celsius

112

specific heat of ethanol

0.6 cal/g/degrees Celsius

113

evaporative cooling

  • 580 cal to evaporate 1 g H2O at 25 degrees Celsius
  • "hottest" molecules have greatest kinetic energy and leave as gas, solution becomes cooler
  • stability of temperature in lakes/ponds
  • prevents overheating in hot dat (increase humidity on hot day increases discomfort because increase concentration of water vapor)
114

hydration shell

ring of water molecules surrounding each io

115

hydrophillic

affinity for water

  • ex cotton/cellulose
116

hydrophobic

no affinity for water

  • ex oil
117

colloid

stable suspension of fine particles in a liquid

118

Predict how life on earth would be different is water were less polar. Which one of the following would result if organisms lived in and consisted of a less polar medium than water?

sweating would be less effective means of keeping cool

119

cells are made up of what percentage of water

70-95%

120

organic chemistry

study of compounds of carbon

121

electron configuration

key to an atom's characteristics, determines kinds and number of bonds

122

four ways carbon skeleton can vary

length, bonds-single or double, branching, rings

123

hydrocarbons

organic molecule that consists of only H and C

124

cis trans isomers

carbon atoms have same covalent bonds, but differ in spatial arrangement due to inflexibility of double bonds

125

enantiomers

card image

mirror image of one another

  • ex: methamphetamine, highly addictive stimulant or active ingredient in vapor inhaler nasal
126

functional groups

components of organic molecules most commonly involved in chemical reactions

127

seven functional groups

hydroxyl group, carbonyl group, carboxyl group, amino group, sulfhydryl group, phosphate group, methyl group

128

L-Dopa versus d-dopa for the treatment of Parkinson's disease

  • L-Dopa is remarkably more effective eliminating paralysis at least temporarily
129
card image

identify the asymmetric carbon in this molecule:

b

130

which functional group is involved in regulating DNA

the methyl group (CH3)

131

many cell organelles, most notably nucleus, are anchored by which are assembled from a diverse class of proteins

intermediate filaments

132

cell junction that forms a barrier to the passage of materials

tight junctions

133

for drug to work it must enter the cytoplasm of specific target cells, the factor that determines whether the molecule selectively enters the target cells is...

the similarity of the drug molecule to other molecules that are transported into the target cells

134

molecules that can cross lipid bilayer without transport protein or other mechanism

water, lipids, oxygen, carbon dioxide

135

lipids

  • hydrophobic, containing mostly hydrocarbon regions, include some waxes and pigments, fats, phospholipids and steroids
136

fats

  • glycerol (3 carbon with hydroxyl attatched to each) and three fatty acids (long chain of 16-18 carbon on carboxyl and the rest hydrocarbons)
  • energy storage mammals store fat in adipose cells
137

hydrogenation

converting unsaturated fats to saturated fats by adding hydrogen

138

Omega 3 fatty acids

card image
  • fats commonly found in marine and plant oils
  • polyunsaturated after the third carbon a double bond
139

phospholipid

card image
  • contains one glycerol, two fatty acid chains, a phosphate group, and a small charged polar molecule
140

steroid

lipids characterized by carbon skeleton of 4 fused rings

141

cholesterol

component of animal cell membranes

142

protein functions

  • speed up - digestive enzymes
  • defense - antibodies
  • storage - casein (milk protein- amino acid for babies), seeds, oval bumin (eqqwhite)
  • transport - hemoglobin (iron containing, oxygen transport)
  • cell communication (receptors - nerve signals)
  • movement - undulations of cilia and flagella (motor proteins) actin and myosin
  • structural support - keratin, collagen
  • hormone - insulin (pancreas - regulatory sugar)
143

how much of the dry mass of cells do proteins make up?

more than 50%

144

polypeptide

the polymer of amino acids

145

amino acid

card image
146

20 amino acids

card image
147

primary structure

unique sequence of amino acids

148

Secondary structure

consists of coils(alpha helix) and folds (beta pleated sheets)in the polypeptide chain

149

Tertiary structure

interactions among various side chains (R groups)

  • hydrophobic interactions- exclusion of nonpolar by water
  • disulfide bridges-covalent bonds between two cysteine monomers
150

Quaternary structure

a protein consists of multiple polypeptide chains

  • collagen-fibrous protein of 3 polypeptides
  • hemoglobin- globular protein of four polypeptides- 2 alpha and 2 beta chains
151

sickle cell disease

an inherited blood disorder, results from s ingle amino acid substitution in the protein hemoglobin

  • substitution of the 6th amino acid from glutamic acid to valine
  • tiny blood vessels, impeding blood flow
152

denaturation

protein unravels and lose shape, weak chemical bonds and interactions destroyed

  • aqueous to nonpolar solvent (ether or chloroform)
  • disruption of hydrogen bonds, disulfide
  • excessive heat
153

chaperonins

protein molecules that assist proper folding of other proteins

  • misfoldings cause alzheimers, parkinsons, mad cow disease
154

There are 20 different amino acids. How many different polypeptides 12 amino acids in length can exist?

20n or 2012

155

DNA directs synthesis of...and through...controls...

messenger RNA, mRNA, protein synthesis

156

pyrimidine

card image

one 6 carbon ring

157

purines

card image

one six carbon ring attatched one 5 carbon ring

158

DNA v RNA sugars

card image
159

the enzyme amylase can break glycosidicc linkages between glucose monomers only if the monomers are in the alpha form. Which of the following could amylase break down?

  1. glycogen, starch, and amylopectin
  2. glycogen and cellulose
  3. cellulose and chitin
  4. starch, chitin, and cellulose

glycogen, starch, and amylopectin

160

Enzymes that break down DNA catalyze the hydrolysis of the covalent bonds that join nucleotides together. What would happen to DNA molecules treated with these enzymes?

The phosphodiester linkages of the polynucleotide backbone would be broken.

161

The molecular formula for glucose is C6H12O6 C6H12O6 . What would be the molecular formula for a polymer made by linking ten glucose molecules together by dehydration reactions?

C60H102O51

162

scanning electron micrscope

  • study topology
163

transmission electron misroscope

study the internal structure of cells

164

super resolution miscroscopy

images of living cell 10-20nm

165

Which cellular structure is common to all three domains of life?

phospholipid bilayer in cell membrane

166

halophiles

live in highy saline environments

167

thermophiles

thrive in very hot environments

168

methanogens

live in swamps and marshes and produce methane as a waste product

169

small cells have a greater ______ relative to volume

surface area

170

nuclear lamina

maintains the shape of the nucleus

171

A typical eukaryotic nucleus has to exchange a great deal of protein and nucleic acid material with the surrounding cytosol of the cell. Which choice correctly describes a feature of most nuclei that helps promote this exchange?

There are numerous nuclear pores that allow regulated passage of selected items into and out of the nuclear space.

172

Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing which of the following molecules?

A.nucleic acids

B.lipids

C.proteins

D.starches

E.steroids

proteins

173

components of the endomembrane system

nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, vacuoles, Golgi apparatus, plasma membrane

174

functions of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum

  • synthesizes lipids
  • metabolizes carbohydrates
  • detoxifies drugs and poisons
  • stores calcium ions
175

functions of the rough ER

  • bound ribosomes secrete glycoproteins
  • distribute transport vesicles
  • membrane factory for cell (make phospholipids)
  • anchor polypeptides
176

Golgi apparatus

flattened membranous sacs called cisternae

  • modifies products of ER
  • manufactures certain macromolecules
  • sorts and packages materials into transport vesicles
177

autophagy

use enzymes to recycle cells own organic material

178

What proteins are not made at the rough ER?

proteins that enter the nucleus and bind there
with the DNA as part of the chromatin

179

What is the correct order of the exocytosis or secretion pathway?

rough ER, Golgi, transport vesicle, plasma membrane

180

Which of the following is not an argument for the theory that mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved from prokaryotic endosymbionts?

Both the matrix and stromal spaces of these organelles contain many types of soluble
proteins.

181

Autophagy removes old damaged organelles like mitochondria. Decreased autophagy results in degeneration and inflammation and may result in the “symptoms” of aging. Which of the following choices is most directly involved in the process of autophagy?

lysosomes

182

microtubules

hollow tubes made up of globular proteins called tubulins (dimer with alpha tubulin and beta tubulin)

  • maintain cell shape
  • cell motility
  • chromosome movements in cell division
  • organelle movement
183

basal body

anchors the cilium or flagellum

184

dynein

drives the bending movements of cilium or flagellum

185

microfilaments

small solid rod containing two twisted strings of a globular protein called actin

186

psuedopodia

extend and contract through the reversible assembly and contraction of actin subunits into microfilaments

187

cytoplasmic streaming

circular flow of cytoplasm within cells

188

intermediate filaments

found in some animals including vertebrates diverse class (between size), includes keratin

  • more permanent fixtures, reinforcing shape and position of organelles
  • some make up nuclear lamina (lines in interior of nuclear envelope)
189

Taxol, a drug approved for treatment of breast cancer, prevents depolymerization of microtubules. What cellular function that affects cancer cells more than normal cells might taxol interfere with?

chromosome movements in cell division

190

collagen

most abundant glycoprotein, forms strong fibers outside cells

191

proteoglycans

small core protein with many carbohydrate chains attatched (95% carbohydrate)

192

fibronectins

attatch cells to ECM

193

integrins

bind to cell surface receptor proteins in the plasma membrane

194

function of ECM

support, adhesion, movement, regulation

195

plasmodesmata

channels that perforate plant cell walls

196

tight junctions

membranes of neighboring cells are pressed together, preventing leakage of extracellular fluid

197

desmosomes

anchoring junctions, fasten cells together into strong sheets

198

gap junctions

communicating junctions, provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent cells

199

basal lamina

specialized layer of the extracellular matrix that is present beneath all epithelial tissues.

200

Extracellular matrix can influence:

cell movement

cell shape

gene expression

201

lateral movement of phospholipids occur

107 times per second

202

flip flop of phospholipid occurs

once per month

203

as temperatures cool, membranes switch from ______ to ______

fluid state; solid state

204

membranes rich in unsaturated fatty acids are ______

more fluid

205

Which of the following amino acids would most likely be present in the transmembrane domain of an integral membrane protein (a protein at least partially inside the membrane)?

A.a charged amino acid like lysine

B.a polar amino acid like serine

C.a special amino acid like glycine or proline

D.a hydrophobic amino acid like valine

E.any of the above, with no preference

D.a hydrophobic amino acid like valine

206

HIV cannot infect a cell lacking
_______ on its surface, as in
resistant individuals

CCR5

207

in a hypertonic solution a plant cell ______ and a animal cell ______

plasmolyzes, shrivels

208

in a hypotonic solution a plant cell is _____ and an animal cell is ______

turgid; lysed

209

in a isotonic solution a plant cell is _______ and an animal cell is _______

flaccid, normal

210

sodium-potassium pump

card image
211

Membrane potential

  • is the voltage difference across a membrane
212

Electrochemical gradient

drives the diffusion of ions across a membrane

  • Chemical force (the ion’s concentration gradient)
  • Electrical force (the effect of the membrane potential on the ion’s movement)
213

electrogenic pump

  • transport protein that generates voltage across a membrane
  • help store energy that can be used for cellular work
214

Cotransport

active transport of a solute indirectly drives transport of other substances

215

starch versus cellulose

card image