Pharmaceutics Exam 1

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 8 days ago by Austin_Millwood
6 views
updated 3 days ago by Austin_Millwood
Subjects:
pha 326
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Which part of the Epidermis is the rate limiting step for percutaneous absorption?

Stratum Corneum

2

How thick is the stratum corneum?

10-15 micrometers

3

What are the Langerhans cells function?

Immune competent (antigen-presenting) cells

4

Which part of the skin contains the blood?

Dermis

5

What is skin as a route of administration for systemic delivery?

Transdermal delivery

6

Are most transdermal drugs Drug-In-Adhesive Controlled systems (Matrix) or Reservoir?

Matrix

7

What are the 3 types of bases for transdermal drugs?

  • Acrylate based
  • Silicone based
  • Polyisobutylene (PIB) based
8

Patches are similar to what type of drug administration?

IV infusion administration

9

If a potent drug is made in a patch form, would a low or high dose be preferred?

Low

10

Why are reservoir patches less preferred?

Leakage possibility

11

Are patches good for drugs with a short or long half-life?

Short

12

Is passive delivery good for lipophilic or lipophobic drugs?

Lipophilic

13

Do patch drugs have a larger or smaller molecular weight?

Smaller

14

If you double the Surface Area of a patch you will double the what?

Delivery

15

What happens if you increase temperature of a patch?

Increase delivery (can be dangerous)

16

Why is trimming hair and not shaving required when applying a patch to the skin?

Shaving damages the Stratum Corneum

17

What is the molecular weight requirement for a patch drug?

less than 500

18

Will increasing concentration increase or decrease drug delivery?

Increase

19

Why do we want to be close to saturation, but not fully saturated when referring to transdermal?

Full saturation allows drug to have higher chance of crystallization

20

This corresponds to how the drug is being distributed between lipids and water:

Partition Coefficient

21

The more log P the more what a drug is?

Lipophilic

22

What is dose dumping?

All of the drug is delivered at once

23

This forces the drug into the body by the like charge of the drug matching with the like charge of the electrode:

Iontophoresis

24

Iontophoresis is highly used in what type of facility?

Physical therapy

25

What method destroys the Stratum Corneum therefore allowing us to see how much of the drug is actually in the Stratum Corneum?

Tape-stripping

26

Which method involves bombarding the skin with crystals?

Microdermabrasion

27

Titanium oxide would be an example of what in a capsule?

Opacifying agent

28

What part of a capsule is obtained by the hydrolysis of collagen?

Gelatin

29

Where you we get collagen from?

skin and bones of animals

30

What is the most common method for the sealing of capsules?

Locking grooves

31

Capsule sizes range from 000 to 5. Which is a smaller capsule?

5 (larger the number, the smaller the capsule)

32

Lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, and pregelatinized starch are examples of what?

Diluents

33

Magnesium stearate is an example of a what?

Lubricant

34

Colloidal/Fumed silicon dioxide or Talc are examples of what?

Glidants

35

Adding too much lubricant to a drug is known as what?

Water proofing

36

Polycarbate 80 is an example of a what?

Surfactant

37

What is mixing the drug in a smaller size of excipient then adding more excipient little by little so that the drug mixes well?

Geometric dilution

38

How can you extract gelatin material from a capsule?

With a syringe

39

What makes soft gelatin capsules actually soft?

Plasticizer

40

The liquids inside soft gelatin capsules can be what?

  • Oil
  • PEG 400
  • Glycerin
  • Polyethylene Glycol
41

PG and Glycerin would be examples of what?

Vehicles in which the drug dissolves

42

Why would peppermint oil be added as an excipient to a drug?

Emergency SL delivery

43

What are dyes in drugs used for?

Distinguishing color

44

Which capsules do not contain gelatin?

HPMC (Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose) capsules

45

What is a tablet's ability or tendency to crumble?

Friability

46

These are tablets that have a cut-line or are "safe to break":

Scored tablets

47

These are tablets are are coated with a dissolving film polymer:

Film-coated tablets

48

These tablets are safe in acidic pH and won't dissolve. They only dissolve in alkaline pH:

Enteric-Coated tablets

49

What is the component used to form an EC tablet?

Cellulose Acetate Phthalate

50

Why might a tablet be layered?

  • Drug might be ER
  • Multiple drugs in one tablet (buffer layer between)
51

What is a press-coated tablet?

Inner tablet enclosed within a larger tablet

52

Can chewable tablets be swallowed and not chewed?

No

53

What is a large excipient used to sweeten a chewable tablet?

Mannitol

54

These tablets may involve, e.g., reaction of sodium bicarbonate with tartaric or citric acid, liberating carbon dioxide (used in water):

Effervescent Tablets

55

How long does it normally take or an RDT to dissolve in the mouth?

15-30 seconds

56

What are advantages of RDTs?

  • Compliance
  • Easiness to take
  • Pediatrics/Geriactrics
57

What is a major disadvantage of an RDT?

High friability

58

Delivery that lyophilizes a foam of drug/gelatin/sugar in a mold that also serves as the unit dose dispensing package:

Zydis delivery system

59

These are small masses of molded powders with rapidly soluble materials:

Tablet triturates or molded tablets

60

Tablet triturates are made in molds designed as two plates. What does each plate contain

  • Plate 1: Pegs
  • Plate 2: Matching holes/cavitites
61

These tablets are hard candy or soft sugar base (dissolve slowly or chew for localized effects):

Lozenges (Troches)

62

These are tablets that dissolve under the tongue:

Sublingual (SL)

63

These are heavy equipment of various capacities which compress powdered or granulated tableting materials through the use of various shaped punches and dies:

Tablet Presses

64

What is added to tablets so they don't fall apart (when outside of the body)?

Binding agents

65

What is added so that tablets will fall apart inside of the body?

Disintegrants

66

Tablet weight and thickness is controlled by the amount of what?

  • Die fill
  • Compression Pressure
67

Concave punches = ?

Convex tablets

68

Provide bulk to make the tablet a practical size for compression

Diluents

69

List examples of diluents:

  • lactose
  • microcrystalline cellulose
  • dicalcium phosphate
  • powdered sucrose
70

Imparts cohesiveness to the tablet formulation:

Binding agents

71

List some examples of binding agents:

  • starch
  • gelatin
  • povidone
  • natural and synthetic gums
72

What is available in varying degrees of polymerization?

Povidone

73

Prevents adhesion of powder to surfaces of dies and punches and may improve flow:

Lubricants

74

List some examples of lubricants:

  • Magnesium Stearate
  • Talc
75

Excess lubricant may result in what?

  • poor disintegration
  • delayed dissolution
76

Improve flow characteristics of powders:

Glidants

77

List some examples of glidants:

  • colloidal silicone dioxide
  • talc
78

Colloidal silicone dioxide (Aerosil ; Cab-O- Sil) is a light, loose powder with a particle size of about what?

15 nm

79

These facilitate the breakup of tablet after administration:

Disintegrants

80

What is an example of a disintegrant?

Starch

81

Super disintegrants are only effective at low or high levels?

Low levels

82

Disintegrants swell in the presence of water and cause what?

Bursting

83

These are useful to distinguish one dose from another, and provide aesthetics

Color/Dyes

84

Where you take a soluble color and put it on an absorbent then add in order to make the color less soluble and easier to handle:

Corresponding lake

85

What are the 3 methods for making a tablet?

  • Wet Granulation Method
  • Dry Granulation Method
  • Direct Compression
86

This is done so that powder can flow evenly & freely from the hopper into the dies

Granulation

87

Powder is treated with a binder is known as:

Wet granulation

88

Powder is compacted is known as:

Dry granulation

89

Used when drug is moisture- or heat-sensitive and/or powder has cohesive properties

Dry granulation

90

If a drug is more than 25% itself it must have what for direct compression?

Good flow properties

91

What corresponds to "a tablet can break up after compression"?

Excess fines

92

Sealing does what to a tablet?

Makes it waterproof

93

What is an example of a sealing coat?

Shellac

94

Sugar-coating a tablet does what to the overall tablet?

Adds a lot of weight

95

What involves "minimizing the amount of water to do the coating"?

Coating dispersion

96

The orange peel effect corresponds to what?

The roughness of the tablet surface

97

What is the uneven distribution of color to a tab?

Mottling

98

What is the "filling in" of a scored line or logo on a tablet?

Bridging

99

These may be used for compounding for special needs when bulk drug is not available

Prefabricated dosage forms

100

Tablet friability should not be greater than what?

1%

101

What can correspond to a tablet being "too friable"?

  • Pressure
  • formulation
  • punches of machine
102

Tablets must disintegrate within limits of official monograph, typically around what time?

15-30 minutes

103

Type II drug class corresponds to what?

  • low solubility (easily soluble)
  • high permeability (once dissolved/absorbs quickly)
104

Give example of ophthalmic antibiotic:

Gentamicin

105

Ophthalmic vasoconstrictor function:

removes redness from eyes (Visine)

106

These ophthalmic solutions contract the pupil of the eye:

Miotics

107

These ophthalmic solutions dilate the eye:

Mydriatics

108

What would be an anti-inflammatory ophthalmic solution?

Steroidal drops

109

What is the tear volume of the eye?

7-8 microliters

110

How many microliters are in a drop?

50

111

Oxygen and nutrients are transported to nonvascular areas by what?

Aqueous humor

112

Chlorobutanol undergoes what chemical process?

Hydrolysis

113

Sterile ophthalmic solutions can have what composition?

  • More than 1 preservative
  • 1 preservative and EDTA
114

What is EDTA?

Chelating agent

115

What concentration of NaCl is isotonic?

0.9%

116

What concentration of Boric acid would be an osmotic equivalent?

1.9%

117

List some examples of viscosity and thickening agents for ophthalmic solutions:

  • HPMC
  • MC (Methyl Cellulose)
118

Ocular bioavailability relates to what?

protein binding (Increase proportion of unionized drug for better absorption)

119

What is an ophthalmic insert?

Basically, a medicated contact lens

120

Adding Viscosity Increasing agent such as HPMC will allow ophthalmic drugs to what?

Stay in the eye longer

121

Soft lenses use a what?

Hydrogel (ex. HEMA)

122

Hydrogel is what composition of water?

30-70%

123

This is used for drug targeting to posterior segment of the eye:

Transscleral iontophoresis

124

Single layer of cells (0.1-0.3 micron)

Alveolar lining

125

The alveolar lining surface area size:

100 square meters

126

Particles with an aerodynamic diameter of what reach the deep lung?

1-5 microns

127

Aerosols depend on the WHAT to disperse the active ingredients in a finely dispersed mist, foam, or semisolid

power of a liquefied or compressed gas

128

Particle sizes of what would result in localized effects in trachea?

20-60 micron

129

What particle size would result in the drug acting in the respiratory bronchioles?

6 micron

130

Liquified gases are also known as what?

Propellants

131

Liquified gases are more or less efficient than compressed gas/powder?

More efficient

132

Aerosols are positively pressurized meaning what?

Nothing can come in, only can go out (maintains sterility)

133

This aerosol type is extremely effective, relatively inert, nontoxic & nonflammable:

Fluorinated Hydrocarbons

134

Why were Fluorinated Hydrocarbons banned?

Hurt the Ozone

135

Are Hydrocarbons and Compressed gases flammable or not?

Yes; flammable

136

Nitrous oxide is a.k.a what?

Laughing Gas

137

When a propellant is used in an aerosol container what happens?

Pressure is maintained until the last drop

138

What occurs when a compressed gas is used in an aerosol container?

Pressure decreases after each use in can

139

Adding liquefied product first and then valve is known as what?

Cold filling

140

Adding the valve first, product later is known as what?

Pressure filling

141

Is cold or pressure filling more commonly used and why?

Pressure; easier method

142

Vapor pressure of propellant exerts pressure in all directions in a aerosol container is known as what?

The Aerosol Principle

143

What controls the pressure and type of aerosol (spray)?

  • Type & amount of propellant
  • Product concentrate
  • Valve
144

Space sprays contain how much propellant?

as much as 85%

145

What is an example of a space spray?

Room deodorizer

146

What would be an example of a surface spray?

Dermatological spray

147

What aerosol type would correspond to emulsion?

Foams

148

Some liquid inhalers used other energy activated devices. What does this mean?

They use mechanical energy, not a propellant

149

What controls the amount of drug discharged in each dose?

Auxiliary Valve Chamber

150

Does a nebulizer use propellants?

No

151

Air stream produced manually or through compressed air source is used to do what?

Break the drug solution into fine particles

152

DPI (Dry Powder Inhalers) can deliver drugs to where?

Deep lung

153

DPIs use what to get the drug to the deep lung?

Carriers (ex. Lactose)

154

Do DPIs use propellants?

No

155

Risk of microbial growth is greater in liquids or solids?

Liquids

156

Rapid acting inhaled insulin device from MannKind Corporation

Afrezza

157

In the drug Afrezza, insulin is absorbed through what?

Technosphere microparticles

158

A dry powder insulin formulation (1 or 3 mg) in blister packed doses is punctured to aerosolize contents into a holding chamber corresponded to which drug?

Exubera

159

What generates excessive air/water interfaces, which may lead to denaturation or aggregation?

Aerosolization

160

Evaporation of droplets may also increase protein concentration within a nebulizer reservoir fluid, which in turn may do what?

Destabilize the protein

161

Capsules are what percent of water?

12-16%

162

If too much lubricant is added and a capsule becomes water-proof, what can reverse this?

Surfactants

163

This is done so that powder can flow evenly & freely from the hopper into the dies

Granulation

164

What are "excess fines"?

Air around particles

165

At what stage does the weight increase in sugar coating?

Subcoating stage

166

Flaking of film fragments corresponds to what?

Picking and peeling

167

What is content uniformity?

Mixing of powder must be uniform in order to determine the same amount of drug