Postmodern Approaches

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1

A solution-oriented therapist might ask her client, a compulsive shopper, which of the following questions?

a. ​ At what point in your life did you develop this fixation on shopping?

b. ​ Who has the best shoe sale this week, Macy’s or Nordstrom’s?

c. ​ If a miracle happened and your shopping compulsion was solved overnight, how would you know it was solved, and what would be different?

d. ​ Who in your family is most affected when you go on a spending spree?

C

2

The postmodern view incorporates all of the following concepts except for the notion that:

a. each individual experiences their own unique reality.

b. reality is objectively defined.

c. reality is socially constructed.

d. reality is based on the use of language.

B

3

Donna feels certain that no one will ever want to hire her because she has a timid personality. Her solution-oriented therapist would be most inclined to:

a. prescribe medication for her anxiety issues.

b. ask Donna to examine another side of the story she is presenting about herself and think of times when she was accepted by others.

c. explore her early childhood experiences with being rejected.

d. consider her irrational belief to be indicative of psychopathology.

B

4

In the view of the postmodern therapist, the most essential element of therapy is:

a. diagnosis.

b. the collaborative therapeutic relationship.

c. assessment.

d. brief course of treatment.

e. skilled use of techniques.

B

5

All of the following are techniques used in solution-focused therapy except for:

a. ​ scaling questions.

b. ​ formula first session task.

c. ​ the miracle question.

d. ​ using the reflecting team.

D

6

All of the following are characteristics shared by the postmodern and person-centered approaches except:

a. the importance of the client defining the goals for therapy.

b. the belief that are capable of solving their problems.

c. the importance of using specific techniques in therapy.

d. the high value of the therapeutic relationship.

e. the therapist’s sense of caring and respect for their client.

C

7

In the solution-oriented approach, which is not considered one of the three basic parts to the structure of summary feedback?

A. expressing concern

B. a bridge

C. suggesting a task

D. compliments

A

8

The therapeutic process in solution-focused brief therapy involves:

a. the premise that to some degree clients already know the solutions to their problems.

b. asking clients about those times when their problems were not present or when the problems were less severe.

c. believing that clients are the experts on their own lives.

d. trusting that solutions evolve out of therapeutic conversations and dialogues.

e. all of these

E

9

Which of the following is false as it applies to the practice of solution-focused brief therapy?

a. Clients want to change, have the capacity to change, and are doing their best to make change happen.

b. Using techniques in therapy is a way of discounting a client’s capacity to find his or her own way.

c. Individuals who come to therapy have the ability to effectively cope with their problems.

d. There are advantages to a positive focus on solutions and on the future.

B

10

Narrative therapy has been found to be particularly effective with diverse client populations for all of the following reasons except:

a. it allows clients to tell their unique stories from their perspective.

b. it defines mental health within a social, political, and relational context.

c. it was founded in a sociocultural context.

d. it teaches diverse clients to replace their own narratives with ones that conform more closely to the ideals and values of mainstream culture.

D

11

All are true of solution-focused brief therapists except that they:

a. believe that the cause of a problem is not necessarily related to its solution.

b. have little interest in a client exploring past problems.

c. expect that two clients may have different solutions to the same problem.

d. focus on the client’s early childhood experiences.

D

12

The role of the leader in solution-focused therapy groups is not:

a. to set the tone of focusing on solutions.

b. to create a setting where the client feels resourceful and capable.

c. to encourage clients to act in the manner they did when their problem was not present.

d. to provide clients with simple solutions to their problems.

e. to skillfully ask questions to guide clients to finding solutions to their problems.

D

13

Which of these solution-focused therapy techniques involves asking clients to describe times in their lives when they were able to solve their problem or when their problem was less severe?

a. formula first session task

b. exception questions

c. pre-therapy change

d. the miracle question

e. scaling

B

14

Solution-focused brief therapy has parallels with____, which concentrates on what is right and what is working for people rather than dwelling on deficits, weaknesses, and problems.

a. brief psychodynamic therapy

b. positive psychology

c. REBT

d. Adlerian therapy

B

15

Which of the following statements about creating alternative stories is not true?

a. The development of alternative stories is an enactment of ultimate hope.

b. Constructing new stories goes hand in hand with deconstructing problem-saturated narratives.

c. The narrative therapist analyzes and interprets the meaning of a client’s story.

d. The narrative therapist listens for openings to new stories.

e. The therapist works with clients collaboratively by helping them construct more coherent and comprehensive stories that they live by.

C

16

From a social constructionist perspective, change begins with:

a. ​ deconstructing the power of cultural narratives.

b. ​ understanding and accepting objective reality.

c. ​ the therapist’s skill in using confrontational techniques.

d. ​ understanding the roots of a problem.

A

17

Of the following, what is an interest that social constructionists tend to share?

a. helping clients tap into the collective unconscious

b. generating new meaning in the lives of individuals

c. using a genogram to teach families about conflicts

d. helping clients better understand objective reality

e. using paradoxical techniques

B

18

​ The techniques of externalization and developing unique events are associated primarily with:

a. the narrative approach.

b. ​ the reflecting team.
c. ​ the linguistic approach.

d. ​ solution-oriented therapy.

A

19

Narrative therapists attempt to do all of the following except:

a. ​ encourage free association.

b. ​ discover preferred directions and new possibilities.

c. ​ engage people in deconstructing problem-saturated stories.

d. ​ create new stories.

A

20

Narrative therapists pay attention to “sparkling events.” These are:

a. stories the client shares that are too good to be true, and in fact, prove to be gross exaggerations of the truth.

b. events characterized by a striving to overcome barriers.

c. events that contradict problem-saturated narratives.

d. moments when the client feels exhilarated.

e. times when significant others give the client unconditional love.

C

21

The creation of the self, which dominated the modernist search for human essence and truth:

a. has proven to be completely irrelevant to all counselors and therapists practicing today.

b. is more relevant in the narrative approach than it is in solution-oriented therapy.

c. is also a key concept of the postmodern approaches.

d. is being replaced by postmodernists with the concept of socially storied lives.

D

22

A limitation of the postmodern approaches is:

a. therapists require extensive training in providing brief therapy.

b. the use of open-ended questioning.

c. inexperienced therapists may over rely on techniques and appear mechanistic.

d. its lack of applicability to group counseling.

C

23

Which is not a major contribution of the postmodern approaches?

a. the non-pathologizing stance.

b. research on these approaches is considered empirically generalizable.

c. the optimistic orientation.

d. the course of treatment is quite short compared to other approaches.

B

24

The founder(s) of solution-focused brief therapy is (are):

a. Donald Meichenbaum.

b. Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck.

c. Michael White and David Epston.

d. Albert Bandura.

e. Insoo Kim Berg and Steve de Shazer.

E

25

The founder(s) of narrative therapy is (are):

a. Albert Bandura.

b. Insoo Kim Berg and Steve de Shazer.

c. Donald Meichenbaum.

d. Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck.

e. Michael White and David Epston.

E

26

Narrative therapy has been effectively applied in school settings.

True

27

The postmodern philosophy suggests that reality and truth are objective and clearly defined.

False

28

The use of techniques is fundamental in narrative therapy.

False

29

Narrative therapy is not well-suited to multicultural counseling.

False

30

Narrative therapists pay significant attention to a client's past as it helps them understand the origins of client's stories.

False

31

In solution-focused therapy, exceptions represent instances when a particular problem in a client's life was not prominent.

True

32

The solution-focused approach was originally designed as a brief model of psychotherapy.

True

33

Social constructionists believe that knowledge is time- and culture-bound, and our ways of understanding are not necessarily better than other ways.

True

34

In narrative therapy, the role of the client is to create, explore, and co-author his or her evolving story.

True

35

While there are few studies of SFBT, brief therapies have been shown to be effective.

True

36

Solution-oriented therapy differs from both strategic and traditional models by eschewing the past in favor of focusing on the future

True

37

Assessment and therapy techniques are more important than empathy to a social constructionist.

False

38

In postmodern thinking, language and the use of language in stories create meaning.

True

39

. The linguistic approach stresses the expert role of the therapist in suggesting solutions to a family's problems

False

40

The narrative approach is part of the social construction model.

True

41

. According to feminist therapists, gender equality permeates most narratives about normal human development.True

False

42

Solution-focused therapists often use scaling questions.

True

43

Modernists believe in objective reality and assume that it can be observed and systematically known through the scientific method.

True

44

In solution-focused therapy, behavior change is viewed as the most effective approach to assisting people in enhancing their lives.

True

45

In social constructionism, the therapist assumes the role of expert, rather than adopting a
collaborative or consultative stance.

False