Biology, 8th Ed, Campbell-Reece, 2008: Biologi Science

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Pearson Education, Inc - 2008 - 1465 pages

 This section provides just a few highlights of new content and organizational improvements in BIOLOGY, Eighth Edition. UNIT ONE The Chemistry of Life New examples make basic chemistry more engaging for students, including an explanation of why steam can burn your skin in Chapter 3, the structures o...f the enantiomeric medications ibuprofen and albuterol in Chapter 4, and information on trans fats in Chapter 5. Anew Inquiry Figure in Chapter 3 relates acidity to the emerging global problem of ocean acidification and its effects on coral reefs. The new Inquiry Figure in Chapter 5 shows Roger Kornberg's 3-D model of the RNA polymerase-DNA-RNA complex, work for which he won the 2006 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. UNIT TWO The Cell The judicious addition of recent research includes updated coverage of the sensory roles ofprimary cilia in Chapter 6, new developments regarding the membrane model in Chapter 7, and Paul Nurse's Nobel Prize-winning work on the cell cycle in Chapter 12. Chapter 11 now ends with a section on apoptosis, formerly in Chapter 21. New Inquiry Figures in this unit describe research on the role of microtubules in orienting cellulose in cell walls (Chapter 6), allosteric regulators of enzymes (Chapter 8), ATP synthase (Chapter 9), yeast cell signaling (Chapter ll), and a cell cycle regulator (Chapter 12). UNIT THREE Genetics Chapter 14 now includes "Tips for Genetics �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� In Chapter 15, sex linkage is discussed directly after the discussion of the white-eye trait in Morgan's fruit flies. Chapter 16 covers replication of the bacterial chromosome and the structure of the eukaryotic chromosome (including a new Exploring Figure), formerly in Chapters 18 and 19, respectively. We have reorganized Chapters 18-21 with the dual aims of telling a more coherent story and facilitating instructors' coverage of molecular genetics. Regulation of gene expression for both bacteria and eukaryotes is now consolidated in Chapter 18, which also includes a concept section on the crucial role of small RNAs in eukaryotes. We have streamlined material on the genetic basis of development (formerly in Chapter 21), and included it in Chapter 18, where it provides the ultimate example of gene regulation. Chapter 18 ends with a section on the molecular basis of cancer (previously in Chapter 19), to demonstrate what happens when gene regulation goes awry. Material on bacterial genetics in Seventh Edition Chapter 18 has been moved to other chapters within the genetics unit and to Chapter 27 on prokaryotes. Chapter 19 now covers only viruses (from Seventh Edition Chapter 18), giving this chapter the flexibility to be assigned at any point in the course. Chapter 20 continues to cover biotechnology, but genome sequencing and analysis have been moved to Chapter 21. Cloning and stem cell production are now in Chapter 20. Newly explained techniques include the screening of an arrayed library, BAC clones, Northern blotting, RT-PCR, and in situ hybridization. The explosion of discoveries about genomes and their evolution led us to develop a chapter devoted to this subject, the new Chapter 21. This chapter consolidates new material with topics from Chapters 19-21 of the Seventh Edition. UNIT FOUR Mechanisms of Evolution Our revision emphasizes the centrality of evolution to biology and the breadth and depth of evidence for evolution. New examples and Inquiry Figures present data from field and laboratory studies and reveal how scientists study evolution. Chapter 22 discusses how evolution can be viewed as both a pattern and a process, and introduces three key observations about life that are explained by evolution: the match between organisms and their environments (adaptation); the shared characteristics (unity) oflife; and the diversity of life. This discussion serves as a conceptual anchor throughout Units Four and Five. Chapters 24 and 25 have been significantly reorganized. Chapter 24 is now more tightly focused on speciation, enabling better pacing of this highly conceptual material. A new concept section explores hybrid zones as naturallaboratories for studying speciation. Chapter 25 focuses on macroevolution, incorporating topics formerly in Chapters 24 and 26, such as the correlations between Earth's geologic and biological history. But the primary storyline concerns what we can learn from the fossil record about the evolutionary history of life. New text and figures explore how the rise and fall of dominant groups of organisms are linked to large-scale processes such as continental drift, mass extinctions, and adaptive radiations. Coverage of evo-devo has been expanded. Phylogenetic trees are introduced earlier, in a new section on "tree-thinking" in Chapter 22. This material supports students in interpreting diagrams before studying phylogenetics more fully in Chapter 26. UNIT FIVE The Evolutionary History of Biological Diversity A new Chapter 26, Phylogeny and the Tree of Life, introduces the unit. Extending material formerly in Chapter 25, it describes how evolutionary trees are constructed and underscores their role as tools for understanding relationships, rather than facts to be memorized. New sections address common misconceptions in interpreting trees and help motivate students with practical applications. Chapter 27 has a new concept section on prokaryotic reproduction, mutation, and recombination (formerly in Chapter 18). This unifies the coverage of prokaryote biology and supports students in developing a fuller understanding of these microorganisms. Throughout Unit Five, along with updating the phyloge· nies of various groups of organisms-introducing, for exam· pie, the �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� hypothesis of eukaryotic phylogeny (in Chapter 28) -we have found new opportunities to use the study of phylogeny as an opportunity to illustrate the iterative nature of the scientific process. We aim to help students stay focused on the big picture ofwhy biologists study evolutionary relationships. Each chapter also now includes an Inquiry figure that models how researchers study organisms and their relationships. At the same time, in each chapter we highlight the key roles that various organisms play in the biosphere as well as their applied importance for humans. UNIT SIX Plant Form and Function Revisions to this unit draw more attention to the experimental basis of our understanding of plant biology. New examples include recent progress toward identifying the flowering "hormone" (Chapter 39). Featured in new Inquiry Figures are experiments demonstrating, for example, that trichomes affect insect feeding (Chapter 35) and that informational molecules transported through the symplast affect plant de· velopment (Chapter 36). In Chapter 36, now titled Resource Acquisition and Transport in Vascular Plants, a new first concept section explores how architectural features of plants facilitate resource acquisition, helping students relate the transport of water and nutrients to what they learned in Chapter 35 about plant structure and growth. Another new concept section, on symplastic transport, discusses recent insights into changes in plasmodesmata shape and number and the transmission of electrical and molecular signals throughout the plant. This unit now has more examples of practical applica· tions of plant biotechnology. For instance, Chapter 37 dis· cusses how genetic modification has increased the resist· ance of some plants to aluminum toxicity and has improved the flood tolerance of rice crops. Chapter 38 elaborates on the principles of plant breeding and incorporates a new section on genetic engineering of biofuels. x New to the Eighth Edition UNIT SEVEN Animal Form and Function An evolutionary perspective more strongly pervades this unit, underscoring how environment and physical laws shape adaptations across animal groups. Each chapter now includes at least one Inquiry Figure; together, these figures highlight the wide range of methodologies used to study animal physiology, including several experiments using molecular biology techniques students studied earlier in the book. Chapter 40 has been revised and reorganized to highlight functional relationships at all levels of organization in animal bodies; thermoregulation serves as an extended example throughout the chapter. Chapter 43, The Immune System, has been extensively revised. For instance, we now contrast recognition of pathogen class in innate immunity with antigenspecific recognition in adaptive immunity, helping overcome the common misconception that recognition is absent in innate immunity. We have divided the former nervous system chapter into m'o, enabling us to better pace difficult material and high· light dynamic current research by focusing first on cellular processes in Chapter 48, and then on nervous system or· ganization and function in Chapter 49. Chapter 50 rounds out the discussion of nervous system function by examining sensory and motor mechanisms. This sequence leads naturally into Chapter 51 on animal behavior (formerly in Unit Eight), which ties together aspects of genetics, natural selection, and physiology, and provides a bridge to the ecology unit. UNIT EIGHT Ecology This unit, which now includes Chapters 52·56, incorporates many new examples that demonstrate a range of methods and scales ofstudy. For example, a new figure in Chapter 52 describes a large·scale field experiment in which researchers manipulated precipitation levels in forest plots, while new Research Method figures describe determining population size using the mark-recapture method (Chapter 53), using molecular tools to measure diversity of soil microorganisms (Chapter 54), and determining primary production with satellite data (Chapter 55). By building on earlier units, we hope to demonstrate how ecology represents a fitting capstone to the book. We provide more microbial examples and more aquatic ones, from diverse locations around the globe. For instance, Chapter 52 now discusses the importance of salinity in determining the distribution ofaquatic organisms, and Chapter 54's coverage of the intermediate disturbance hypothesis includes a new figure on a quantitative test of the hypothesis in New Zealand streams. The unit highlights the great relevance of ecology to society and to students' lives. A new concept section in Chapter 54, for example, discusses how community ecology helps us understand pathogen life cycles and control disease.   BIOLOGY Eighth Edition Neil A. Campbell Jane B. Reece Berkeley, California Lisa A. Urry Mills College. Oakland, California Michael L. Cain Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine Steven A. Wasserman University of California, San Diego Peter V. Minorsky Mercy College, Dobbs Ferry, New York Robert B. Jackson Duke University, Durham, North Carolina PEARSON -- BeI\.iamin Cummings San Francisco Boston New York Cape Town Hong Kong London Madrid Mexico City Montreal Munich Paris Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto  

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